Japan stores 50,000 tons of ultra-pure water 1 km deep underground, what is the purpose for more than 20 years?

Although more than 70% of the earth’s surface is covered by water, but the actual water for human use is very little, more importantly, in various resources, water is a resource that can not be replaced, so water scarcity has become one of the world’s attention important issues.

Water scarcity | SIWI

Since the water for human use are so little, why Japan still has to store 50,000 tons of ultra-pure water in the underground 1000 meters, a deposit is still stored for more than 20 years, this is why? Japan has some ulterior motive?

Extremely high purity of water – ultra-pure water.
In our daily lives, we often come into contact with water, basically have impurities, such as mineral water, spring water, etc., which has minerals, and tap water and water rust, chloroform after the residual impurities, and we believe that the more pure distilled water, in fact, there is air dissolved in it, there are impurities, so in our perception of water can conduct electricity.

But in fact, pure water should be insulated body, according to the conductivity of water can come to determine whether the water is pure, because at room temperature, the more insulated water is pure, according to this judgment standard, we require ultra-pure water resistance at room temperature to be greater than 18 megohm-cm.

Compared with other water, ultra-pure water is very clean, can be understood as no impurities, even the various molecules in the air are not, only water molecules, so ultra-pure water need to go through distillation, deionization, reverse osmosis technology and other technical depth treatment, the general process is very difficult to achieve, is mainly used in the industrial field and the field of medicine and optical field.

Japan will be 50,000 tons of ultrapure water stored in the ground, some people first thought of the storage of water, this idea is certainly not right, if only for drinking, direct storage of water on the line, why do we have to go to great lengths to create ultrapure water and then stored?

In addition, the purity of ultra-pure water is very high, does not contain substances beneficial to the human body, but also does not contain substances harmful to the human body, but into the human body, it may cause a decrease in extracellular fluid permeation pressure, the human body is harmful, not conducive to drinking.

Japan has stored 50,000 tons of ultrapure water at a depth of 1,000 meters  underground. What is its purpose? | Luju Bar

Ultra-pure water is for the detection of neutrinos.
Neutrino is one of the most fundamental particles in nature, the speed of this particle is close to the speed of light, and any material interaction is extremely weak, it is considered almost no effect, so the detection of neutrinos is a very difficult thing.

But then scientists gradually found that neutrinos and water will rub a different spark, when neutrinos pass through ultra-pure water will emit a shorter wavelength of electromagnetic radiation and be observed by existing technology, so ultra-pure water has become a sign of detecting neutrinos.

This explains why Japan wants to store neutrinos, and the reason for choosing 1000 meters underground is because there are many particles in the cosmic rays, underground can be isolated from the interference of particles on the ground.

The Japanese team conducted the “Kamioka Nuclear Decay Experiment” at 1000 meters underground until February 1987, when the Japanese Kamioka detector detected neutrinos generated by the supernova 1987A explosion in the Large Magellanic Cloud, which gave Japan great encouragement.

Neutrinos Suggest Solution to Mystery of Universe's Existence | Quanta  Magazine

So Japan has increased the research on neutrino, the ultra-pure water storage capacity from a few thousand tons to 50,000 tons, which 50,000 tons of ultra-pure water in 1996 officially put into use, the results of the detection of Japan won two Nobel Prizes.

The study of neutrinos is of great significance.
Neutrinos have a very small mass, almost zero, and can pass freely through any material without reacting with it, but this does not affect the penetrating power of neutrinos at all.

Not only that, but neutrinos can easily pass through rocky planets like Earth. Since its discovery, the neutrino has been considered one of the most fundamental particles in the vast universe. Throughout the universe, neutrinos are usually produced by nuclear reactions in stars, supernovae or cosmic rays hitting atoms.

Therefore, neutrinos may contain the mysteries of the universe, and the study of neutrinos is of great importance to the origin and evolution of the universe and the formation of the grand structure of the universe, but neutrinos are difficult to detect and we know very little about this particle at present.

Neutrinos could shed light on why the Universe has so much more matter than  antimatter

Nowadays, neutrino research is one of the hottest directions in physics. Neutrinos can be used not only in astronomical research, but their powerful penetrating power and speed close to the speed of light determine that they can improve the speed and efficiency of communication propagation nowadays.

With a diameter of 250 million light-years, the interior is dark, how terrible is the Bode constellation?

We often say that the matter in the universe is uniformly distributed in all spaces after the big bang. With the passage of time, because of the imbalance between the expansion speed of the universe and the size relationship between celestial galaxies, its gravitational effect on matter is also unbalanced. It is different, so there are more blank spaces in the cosmic space.

But in general, the distribution of matter and galaxies in the cosmic space is relatively balanced, and there will be no particularly large deviations.

However, scientists have found a very large “hole” in the northeast direction of the Virgo galaxy in the northern sky. The hole is about 250 million light-years in diameter and about 700 million light-years away from Earth.

At this location, which is more than 2,500 times larger than the Milky Way’s 100,000 light-years, there are so few stars in it that it becomes a huge blank area, which scientists have named the “Boes Void”.

Boes Hollow
As one of the largest known voids in the universe, there are so few galaxies in the Boes Void that it is almost impossible to find a single galaxy until an average of 10 million light-years.

We can compare it like this: the diameter of the Milky Way is only about 1/2500 of that of the constellation Boe, and in terms of volume, the constellation Boo can hold tens of millions of galaxies. In this “small” Milky Way galaxy, there are 100-400 billion stars alone, but in this huge constellation Boes, scientists have discovered here in the more than ten years since its discovery in 1981 to 1997. The number of galaxies is less than 60. The gap is so large that Boes is sometimes referred to as the “super-void”.

According to the scientists’ calculation of the distribution of galaxies in other spaces, it is reasonable that there should be at least 2,000 galaxies in the constellation Boo, but the reality is quite rare, and the distances between them are quite far, on average, almost 2000 galaxies. 10 million light years. Why is the Shepherd’s seat so empty?

Because galaxies are too rare, there is a view that the original matter in the Boes constellation void may have been taken away by other surrounding matter with greater gravitational force in the early stage of its formation. Later, the universe expanded and the galaxies moved away faster than the speed of light. The Booness hole is naturally getting bigger and bigger.

From the distribution of some sparse galaxies, it has been suggested that the super-large void in Boes may be formed by the combination of multiple small voids. Others believe that the constellation of Boes is not empty and is filled with dark matter and dark energy.

The formation of cosmic voids
Scientists have discovered some (dark) blue regions from the microwave background radiation distribution map that studies the distribution of heat in the universe after the Big Bang. They are the “holes” of the energy-poor and extremely sparsely distributed universe.

There are not many “voids” in the universe, and Boes is just one of them. The largest cosmic void discovered by human beings is far more terrifying than the size of the constellation Shepherd. Its diameter can reach 1.8 billion light-years. It is simply an invincible giant, known as a “super void”.

These voids do not mean that they exist in a complete vacuum, but in terms of the total distribution of matter in the universe, the matter here is 20% or more less than that in other regions, and the density is extremely low. When there are voids in the universe, where no galaxies are found, there are naturally no stars, planets and other matter. Because no celestial body can exist independently of a galaxy.

That is, to some extent, we can understand the void of the universe as a dark region of “nothing”, including the Boes Void.

Maybe some people think that the gap between the galaxies is too big? Where did so many empty words come from?

According to scientists’ research on cosmic voids, about 10,000 galaxies have disappeared from the universe. The area where they were originally also lost energy due to the “invisibility” of matter, and gradually cooled to become the low temperature region of the universe. The blue part of the above-mentioned cosmic microwave background radiation map, the darker the color, the lower the temperature, there is almost no matter here.

But in this case, scientists also don’t know where these stars go, or why the galaxies are so far away from this area. It has been suggested that if dark matter is to be blamed, then the formation of voids may be related to the activity of dark matter.

So is there any other possibility besides dark matter? Some scientists have proposed another possibility: the expansion of advanced civilizations in the universe. How should this be understood?

What advanced civilization did?
Regarding the speculation and exploration of cosmic civilization, the world has never lacked reservations about advanced civilizations other than humans. After all, the universe currently has no boundaries for human beings, and it is not completely certain whether there will be civilizations that we do not know about.

According to the level of Kardashev civilization, civilization in the universe should have three major stages: planetary energy utilization, star system energy utilization, and (galaxy) parent galaxy energy utilization.

Based on this understanding, we can make a bold guess: Could the voids in the universe be caused by advanced civilizations that utilize the energy of other galaxies in the universe?

In order to better develop their own civilization, these advanced civilizations take, store, utilize and consume the energy of the galaxy, leaving only a void with nothing. When the energy of the nearby galaxy is completely absorbed, the advanced civilization will The range of galactic energy sources will continue to increase, and the voids will become larger and larger.

Such speculation is not completely unreasonable, but it is a bit exaggerated. The energy utilization of a star system is exaggerated enough. How advanced civilization must it consume tens of millions of galaxy energy? According to this consumption, how long will the galaxy energy in the universe be enough for these civilizations to consume?

Obviously, not many people agree with this view.

Other astronomers believe that these cold regions of space are evidence of cosmic cycles. It’s just that the theory of cosmic circulation is still in the stage of speculation and confirmation, and which view is more informative, we have to wait for more astronomical observations.