Common menstrual problems in adolescent girls

Many adolescent girls are reluctant to discuss their body problems with their parents. So it is important to maintain communication with children at this stage, especially mothers.

A common menstrual problem in adolescent girls is irregular bleeding, a phenomenon called “dysfunctional uterine bleeding.” But don’t be intimidated by the name, in most cases it’s nothing to worry about. It refers to menstrual periods that are more frequent, or last longer than usual, or have no periods at all.

Bleeding between periods is a classic manifestation of dysfunctional uterine bleeding. This disease sometimes causes anemia in children.

Causes of Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding
Most of them are due to hormonal changes in the body. The most common is that the body does not ovulate during the menstrual cycle, which will cause hormonal disorders and cause irregular menstruation and excessive bleeding.
Thyroid problems.
Polycystic ovary.
Irregular exercise, unbalanced diet and stress, etc.
Coagulation disorders such as hemophilia.
Manifestations of dysfunctional uterine bleeding
Bleeding too much, changing sanitary pads every hour;
Menstruation lasts more than ten days;
Menstruation occurs again in less than 20 days;
Menstruation has not come for more than three months.

Diagnosis of dysfunctional uterine bleeding
Doctors need to diagnose the disease based on a medical history and physical examination, and sometimes labs and imaging tests to rule out certain diseases or identify the cause.

Treatment of Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding
Treatment is most effective for causes such as polycystic ovaries and thyroid problems. Children with anemia should also be treated with iron supplementation.

If it is a hormonal disorder, oral contraceptives are generally used for treatment. Note that contraceptives are used here not for contraception but to regulate hormone levels.

It is very common for adolescent girls to have menstrual problems. It is very important to maintain communication with your child. Let your child trust you so that they will know as soon as possible that there is something wrong with their body.


General anesthesia is equivalent to dying once? Is it true that waking up will make you stupid and dumb? Come in to learn

Minor ailments can be cured with medication and injections, but in many cases, organs need to be removed and radiotherapy is required for relief. In order to improve the patient experience and reduce pain, general anesthesia is necessary to remove the organs. Some patients report that they wake up after general anesthesia with unclear consciousness, memory loss, and even slowed thinking ability.

So the question is, will general anesthesia damage the brain?

The process of general anesthesia surgery on the body
In the mid-19th century, the University of Massachusetts General Hospital in the United States performed surgical anesthesia demonstrations, and since then, medicine has welcomed the beginning of anesthesia and the pain of surgical excision alone has become a thing of the past.

1、Anesthesia induction

A relatively conscious person cannot switch to deep sleep within a short period of time, and anesthesia induction is a high-risk stage for complications, generally divided into intravenous and inhalation anesthesia. In less than three minutes, the patient enters deep sleep, the muscles gradually relax and cannot breathe on their own, so a breathing channel must be established through external medical instruments. When the passage is successfully established and the patient’s symptoms return to normal, the next step should be performed.

Anesthesia: Why Does It Work?

2、Anesthesia maintenance

Anesthesia is used to maintain life after surgical treatment. After the patient loses consciousness, the anesthesiologist will monitor all the physiological symptoms, such as blood pressure, heart rate, bleeding volume and respiratory rate. This data should not be deviated, and the drug injection dose should be adjusted according to the changes. In general, there are more than ten kinds of emergency medications.

3、Anesthesia awakening

After the surgery is completed, the doctor will switch to pain medication to avoid pain in the patient’s wound. When everything is stable and recovered, the patient will be woken up gradually, the vital signs will be measured, and the surgery will be successfully finished.

Generally speaking, according to the body’s basic metabolism, the anesthetic drug components will be excreted in the urine through the liver and kidney respiratory system within 8 hours. If the liver and kidney function is impaired, the metabolism time is longer. The technique has been developed for over a century so far, and the drugs are absolutely safe to use, and the dose used can hardly affect the memory, consciousness and thinking of adults.

In middle-aged and elderly patients, the body’s organs are gradually going downhill, the metabolic ability is pivotal, and the neurological response is greatly reduced, therefore, after receiving surgery, the consciousness learning ability will be relatively affected within a short period of time. This is clinically referred to as post-operative cognitive dysfunction.

With the gradual metabolism of medications, patients can return to normal within a week, although some patients may experience this for up to several months due to their unique physical condition.

What is Anesthesia for Ambulatory Surgery? - Windy City Anesthesia

The first injection of anesthesia is not harmful to children in their adolescent development, but frequent anesthesia may affect the development of children under the age of three.

What if the child wakes up unexpectedly during the procedure?
The only purpose of anesthesia injections is to reduce the patient’s pain, complete the surgery more efficiently, and help him or her return to a healthy body and life.

However, there are always exceptions to this rule. Many bodies are intolerant to anesthesia, causing patients to wake up during the procedure, which requires the anesthesiologist to perform emergency injections immediately.

Na, from Canada, underwent surgery 10 years ago, and everything was normal after the anesthesia before the surgery, but in the middle of the surgery, she felt pain and could even hear the conversations of the people around her clearly. Although conscious, but the body can not move, open eyes, slowly look at the scalpel, layer by layer lift the belly, want to remind the surrounding people, but they can not move and can not make a sound. Although the surgery was finally over, these hours were like a nightmare for Yu Na.

This condition is a relatively rare complication in the medical profession, known as intraoperative anesthesia awareness, which simply means that the anesthesia has failed. If the medical staff can detect the return of the patient’s physiological characteristics during the surgery, they must intervene in time to prevent the anesthesia from failing and reduce the patient’s pain.

How Anesthesia Works | HowStuffWorks

Nowadays, in order to prevent such a situation, the surgeon will give the patient a cuff during the induction of anesthesia. The main function is that, when anesthesia fails, the slightest movement can be fed back to the anesthesiologist for dose adjustment to avoid medical errors and allow patients to suffer from surgical excision.

At present, there is no definite conclusion as to what makes a patient awake during anesthesia. It is only speculated that it may be related to the patient’s age, drug dosage, weight, body type, type of surgery, surgery time, and many other aspects, and the specific details are still under study.

However, if the patient has unstable vital signs and other chronic diseases, it is likely to affect the entire surgical procedure and the effect of anesthesia, and even leave neurological problems for six months to a year afterwards.

How painful is general anesthesia? The first-hand confessions: like “dead” once felt


We all know that patients are usually put under anesthesia during surgery because the pain of surgery is something that few people can endure. Some people say that after anesthesia, their functions are not as good as before, and even their memory has decreased. What is our body going through while under anesthesia?

Anesthesia | Johns Hopkins Medicine

How painful is general anesthesia? The first-hand confession: as if “dead” once felt

In August of this year, a patient in Shenzhen had an accident during surgery. Specifically, she woke up suddenly during the operation and saw that her body was being cut one by one.

After the surgery, she had a severe stress disorder. When I looked back at the monitor, I realized that the anesthesiologist had left in the middle of the surgery and the anesthesia was blocked, causing her to wake up in the middle of the surgery without enough medication. In the words of the victim, it was like she had “died” once!

Is Anesthesia Safe for Kids? – Cleveland Clinic

What does the body go through after a general anesthetic during surgery? After the general anesthesia, all the nerves in the body will be suppressed, the consciousness will be lost, and the pain will not be felt. In fact, after the general anesthesia, the body goes through three main processes.

The first one is induction

After the patient enters the operating room, the doctor first looks at the patient’s physical symptoms and then uses different methods to inject the anesthetic into the body according to the individual’s information, and the patient will fall asleep and become unconscious.

Delayed Recovery from Anesthesia - Ambulatory Anesthesia Services | OBS  Anesthesia Management Groups

The second one is maintenance.

The anesthesiologist keeps observing the patient’s symptoms and increases the dosage again if necessary. This process is not complete until the end of the operation.

The third one is awakening

After the surgery is over, the patient needs to wake up as soon as possible, because medicine is poisonous and it is harmful to human health if the patient remains in a dormant state stimulated by medicine. The doctor observes the patient’s condition and then removes the trachea and waits for the patient to wake up.

Why do people wake up during surgery?

First, the patient’s own reasons

If the patient becomes more nervous, he or she will be more likely to develop drug resistance.

24,116 Anesthesia Stock Photos, Pictures & Royalty-Free Images - iStock

Secondly, misjudgment of the anesthesiologist

If the anesthesiologist does not observe the symptoms carefully, the wrong drug may cause the patient to awaken early, which is a big mistake.

Third, anesthesiologist’s negligence

Due to the anesthesiologist’s mistake, the patient may be under anesthesia and wake up early.

Will the patient become stupid and dumb after the anesthesia?

There is no direct evidence that the patient will become stupid after anesthesia, because anesthetics are also drugs, and the residual problem of the drug will definitely be considered. General anesthetics can be eliminated from the body, so there is no need to worry about this problem. Fear of anesthetics will be used indiscriminately, used in a crooked way will have a great negative impact.

Is there an anesthetic that makes you dizzy when you shoot?

If the drug is not inhaled or injected, the human body should not suffer the effects of anesthesia. Narcotics also have a very distinctive taste, and criminals can’t use them without a sound.

English Website - For Patients - Patient Guide to Anesthesia|公益社団法人 日本麻酔科学会


Narcotics do not make people stupid, that’s just a rumor, drugs do affect people’s health, as long as they are used properly there is no big problem. The emergence of anesthetics has enabled many people to solve the problem of pain during surgery.