Wall Street Journal: Russia can’t get TSMC’s precision chips, weapons research and development will be frustrated

The Wall Street Journal reported today that the United States has joined hands with Taiwan, South Korea, Japan and other chip-making countries to sanction Russia, and it has been unable to obtain TSMC’s precision chips, adding variables to Russia’s development of advanced weapons, 5G, artificial intelligence (AI) and robotics.

The Wall Street Journal (WSJ) reported that shortly after Russia invaded Ukraine, the United States imposed a ban in late February on the sale of cutting-edge semiconductors and telecommunications systems used in the defense, aerospace and maritime industries to Russia and its ally Belarus; some use U.S. equipment, software or Certain foreign products produced by Blueprint are also covered by the ban.

Taiwan and South Korea, the world’s leading semiconductor companies, and Japan, a powerhouse of chip production tools, have also adopted the US export control list and imposed bans on Russia. This will set back the development of advanced Russian weapons and cutting-edge technologies such as fifth-generation mobile communications (5G), artificial intelligence and robotics.

Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC) has demonstrated its commitment to complying with new export controls. Samsung Electronics also said it had suspended shipments to Russia and assessed future actions based on geopolitical developments.

The Wall Street Journal quoted a Western semiconductor industry executive as saying that “Russia’s chip manufacturing technology is more than 15 years behind TSMC.” Russia’s largest chip maker Mikron claims to be the only one in Russia capable of producing 65-nanometer chips. About 2006 the semiconductor industry will be able to mass-produce 65nm wafers.

Some high-end chips designed by Russian companies are assembled by TSMC, which may cause Russia to run out of stock, but it is uncertain whether these chips are affected by the sanctions.

Russian chip designer Baikal Electronics JSC said its Baikal microprocessor, manufactured by TSMC, is widely used in Russian-made computers and servers. The data also shows that the new Elbrus microprocessor designed by the Moscow SPARC Technology Center and developed by Russia was originally to be produced by TSMC.

Tom Rafferty, Asia director of the Economist Intelligence Unit, said the international sanctions deal had a big impact on Russia. “South Korea and Taiwan almost exclusively produce high-end semiconductors, and Russia can’t find it anywhere else,” he said.

Regardless of chip design or production, Russia relies heavily on foreign technology. According to the United Nations Comtrade database, Russia imported $440 million in semiconductor equipment and $1.25 billion in chips in 2020, mainly from Asian countries that currently do not impose sanctions.

Based on the importance of Taiwan, South Korea and Japan to the semiconductor industry, especially precision chips, the development of Russian high-end chips or self-produced chips faces uncertainties under this wave of international sanctions.

OLED panel handset market penetration to slow in 2022 due to supply and price factors

According to a research report by Counterpoint Research, OLED panels will account for 42% of the global smartphone panel market in 2021, up 10 percentage points from 2020. OLED smartphone panel growth is expected to slow in 2022, with only a 2 percentage point increase in market share.

The report explains that the slowdown in OLED panel market growth is related to the lower average selling price of 5G smartphones. Due to supply shortages, prices of key components such as wafers are rising. The smartphone industry is facing lower prices but higher costs due to the slowdown in international economic growth and increased competition in the market, and the pressure of sluggish consumption.

Due to the above factors, manufacturers who urgently need to reduce production costs will maximize the competitiveness of panel prices. Tracking data shows that the share of OLED panels for 5G smartphones reached 80% in the fourth quarter of 2021, already down 2 percentage points from the same period in 2020.

The supply and price of OLED panels are also obstacles. OLED panels can directly replace cheap smartphone LCD panels, but the global supply of OLED panels is extremely limited, and investment is focused on high-end soft OLED panels instead of less profitable OLED panels, making the supply of OLED panels insufficient to fully replace LCD panel demand.

Soft OLED panels, the preferred choice for high-end smartphones, are now significantly lower in price than in 2020, and the adoption rate is on the rise.

As an important technology that affects our lives, how much do you know about radio?

When it comes to radio, many people may think that it is a very old concept, but in fact, radio plays a very important role in our lives. Currently, radio has become the most widely used medium for the masses. According to the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, 95% of the world’s population can receive radio signals. In our life, radio is everywhere, the use of cell phones, Wi-Fi connection, invisible and invisible radio brings a lot of convenience to people’s daily life. However, due to the complexity of radio technology, the public still does not know much about radio, so let’s walk into the world of radio today.

CKWX Radio History

The Road to the Birth of Radio

The theory of radio is based on the electromagnetic field theory of British physicist Maxwell. The German physicist Hertz first discovered the existence of electromagnetic waves through experiments in 1887. All objects in the world emit electromagnetic waves, for example, light is the electromagnetic waves emitted by the sun. Although this electromagnetic wave is not observed by the human eye, snakes possess this ability and rely on their keen and unique perception to catch their prey at night. These electromagnetic waves propagating in free space are what physics refers to as radio, which exists not only in the air but also in the vacuum, and the technology by which people transmit signals through radio waves is radio technology.

The Italian inventor Marconi is known as the “father of radio communication” because he was inspired by Hertz’s experiments and began to experiment with radio transmission and obtained a transmission distance of a few meters in 1894. The real landmark came on December 12, 1901, when, after many trials and long explorations, Marconi completed the first radio communication across the Atlantic Ocean and was able to receive telecommunications from the United Kingdom in the United States. This news was a great shock to people at that time. In the history of mankind, the desire to transmit messages quickly has always been a constant wish and a difficult problem. Since Marconi’s invention, human communication has entered a new era, no longer having to rely on the delivery of animals and letters, radio has since allowed messages to be sent around the world at any time.

Soon, the wireless telegraph invented by Marconi was widely used around the world. In reality, the earliest application of radio technology was in navigation, when people used Morse telegraph to transmit information between ships and land. Marconi-style radio stations were set up on the coasts and forts of many countries. But it still had many shortcomings. First, the Marconi transmitter’s oscillating circuit and antenna are combined, which makes the transmitter’s power very low; second, the wireless communication used by Marconi is not able to be tuned, which makes its radio waves emitted from each other very easy to interfere; more annoying is the lack of reliable telegraph receiving device in the Marconi wireless telegraph system.

Invention of radio - Wikipedia

To address the drawbacks of Marconi’s telegraph facilities, German physicist Karl Ferdinand Braun made improvements. He invented a new tuning technique based on the tuned powder detector of the British engineer Joseph Lodge from 1902, which enabled radio telegraphy to be transmitted and received in different frequency bands in a directional manner, reducing interference, and this technique was also the basis of radio. In 1909, the Nobel Prize jury awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics to Marconi and Braun for their contributions to the cause of human radio engineering.

The Beginnings of Radio Technology

When radio technology was in its infancy, the Morse code, which we often see in old movies, was a major “killing tool” that every radio communicator had to master. This is because the earliest radio telegraphs were very limited in the number of messages they could transmit, so people tried to use a kind of intermittent signal code to replace the messages, and the famous Morse code was born. In Morse code, there are two signals, the short “・” and the delayed “-“, and people can use different combinations of signals to express different meanings, such as “—” for the letter a and “—” for the letter d. In this way, with the In this way, with the support of Morse code, simple symbols can also convey a content and interesting text. With the development of technology, Morse code has disappeared from everyday life. However, many radio enthusiasts and military broadcasters still use it because it can work under very harsh communication conditions and has a high message density.

A Basic Look At How Radio Technology Really Works

In 1920, the world’s first official broadcast began in the United States, and radio broadcasting has since flourished in many other countries.

How radio technology works

There is a typical analogy that describes the process: When you throw a stone at a calm lake, the water waves will travel a long way. If these water waves can record information, then as the ripples dissipate, the information can also be transmitted to faraway places. Radio waves can travel in free space (e.g., air and vacuum), so as long as humans load information on radio waves of a specific frequency, then the purpose of transmitting information can be achieved. Specifically, this technology works by generating radio waves when the strength of the electric current in the conductor changes. By the phenomenon of radio waves generated by the change in the strength of the current in the conductor, the information can be loaded on the radio waves after modulation. When the radio waves transmitted through space reach the receiving end, the electromagnetic field change caused by the radio waves generates current in the conductor, and the information is extracted from the current change by demodulation to realize the information transmission.

Wireless telegraphy - Wikipedia

The road of development of radio technology

Although at the beginning, radio waves could only transmit some simple “drops”, but with the continuous development of technology, people’s research on radio gradually deepened, radio is widely used in many fields such as communication, navigation, radar, heating, power, remote control, astronomy, etc.. Among them, the application of radio in the field of communication is the most familiar, broadcasting, telephone, television, emergency services (positioning), data transmission and other applications in people’s lives have become very common. With the continuous development of computer technology and information technology, various wireless networks based on wireless transmission technology are becoming an important part of people’s lives.

The history of the development of radio is, to a large extent, the history of people’s research and application of each waveband. The development and application of radio has gone through two stages: software radio and cognitive radio. Software-defined radio is a radio broadcasting communication technology, which was formally proposed by scientists in the early 1990s. One of its main features is that it is based on software-defined radio communication protocols rather than being implemented through hardwired connections. Band, air interface protocols and features can be upgraded through software downloads and updates without a complete hardware replacement.

When Was Radio Invented? How Radio Changed The World

After decades of promotion and worldwide research, the concept of software radio has not only been widely recognized, but also widely applied. 3G, 4G, multi-band multi-mode radio, and joint tactical radio systems are all designed and developed with the concept of software radio, and even GPS, which accomplishes a single function, is designed with software to meet the development needs of navigation technology.

Awareness radio is a wireless communication technology that includes an intelligent transceiver. It was proposed by scientists in the early 21st century to improve the utilization of the free spectrum. The intelligent transceiver in cognitive radio detects which bands are unoccupied and which bands are in use, and when certain bands are detected to be free, the CR system can temporarily use the band for communication. Cognitive radio can sense the surrounding electromagnetic environment, communicate intelligently with the communication network through Radio Knowledge Description Language (RKRL), and adjust the transmission parameters (communication frequency, transmit power, modulation method, coding system, etc.) in real time, so that the radio parameters of the communication system can not only adapt to the rules but also match the environment to achieve high reliability of the communication system at any time and any place. This is to achieve high reliability and efficient use of spectrum wherever and whenever possible.

Compared with software radio and cognitive radio, the former is concerned with the software approach to radio system signal processing, while the latter emphasizes the ability of the wireless system to sense changes in the propagation environment and adjust the system parameters accordingly to achieve optimal adaptation. In this sense, cognitive radio is a higher-level concept that includes not only signal processing but also the high-level activities of reasoning and planning based on corresponding tasks, policies, rules, and goals.

7 amazing uses of radio technology - AZ Big Media

Realization of Radio Communication

Over the past 100 years, communication technology has developed rapidly, and the application of telegraph, telephone, radio, television and other communication technologies has greatly accelerated the pace of modern life, making the ancient dream of “smooth ears” and “clairvoyance” a reality.

To carry out radio communication, you need to send and receive radio waves. Antenna is the necessary equipment for transmitting and receiving radio waves, we can often see a variety of antennas. To carry out radio communication, the first thing to do is to transmit radio waves. Radio wave transmitters have an important part called the oscillator, which generates a high frequency alternating current, high-frequency alternating current flow through the antenna, generating a high frequency electromagnetic field in space. As this electromagnetic field is doing periodic changes in the surrounding area and produce a new electromagnetic field …… so that the electromagnetic wave is emitted.

Radio Technology - EnOcean

Radio broadcasting transmits sound, while television broadcasting transmits not only sound, but also images. The oscillator generates a high-frequency alternating current that is used to carry information such as sound and images, called a carrier wave. By adding information to the carrier wave and transmitting it, the information can be transmitted to distant places. Adding information to the carrier wave is to make the carrier wave change with the signal, this technique is called modulation. There are two ways of modulation, a common one is to make the amplitude of the high frequency carrier wave change with the signal, this way is called amplitude modulation (AM). Amplitude modulation is used for radio broadcasts in the medium-wave and short-wave bands. In the microwave band, the image signal of a TV broadcast is also amplitude modulated. Another modulation method is to make the frequency of the high-frequency carrier wave change with the signal, and this modulation method is called FM.

The amplitude of FM remains unchanged, the ability to resist interference is stronger, and the distortion during transmission is smaller. However, the structure of FM receivers is more complex than AM receivers, and the service radius is smaller. Many of the radio stations we are familiar with are FM radio stations, which can broadcast high quality music and language programs.

There are many radio and television stations in the world that transmit electromagnetic waves every minute of every day. Therefore, there are many electromagnetic waves around us. When you receive radio broadcasts, you must first select what you need from the many radio waves. When we turn the radio knob to select a station, we are actually selecting the electromagnetic wave we need, which is technically called tuning. After tuning, the receiver gets a high-frequency current with a message marker. This high-frequency signal current is not yet the desired signal itself. To get the required sound and image information, they must be “taken” out of the high-frequency signal current, a process called demodulation. The signal obtained through demodulation has to be amplified. If the information transmitted is sound, you can make the speaker sound; if the information transmitted is image information, you can make the picture tube display images.

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Application of radio technology

In today’s life, we can’t live without radio, and the applications of radio are becoming more and more diverse, including not only wireless data networks, but also various types of mobile communications and radio broadcasting.

The earliest application of radio is in the field of communication, where people can transmit information over long distances for the first time with the help of radio. When radio technology was introduced, it was quickly applied in the field of navigation, where military ships would use it to send and receive orders and notifications, and civilian ships would use it to call for help or to transmit other information. Mobile phone is the most popular wireless communication device, and people can talk freely as long as they are in the signal coverage area. In addition, technologies such as wireless LAN and Bluetooth use radio technology to transmit data over short distances.

Wi-Fi 6 Explained: What's New and Why You Might Be Interested | TechSpot  Forums

Radio navigation can guide people to their destinations smoothly. In this technology, the satellite can use radio waves to determine the navigation parameters of the carrier (such as bearing and speed) and calculate the deviation from the predetermined route so that it can be corrected in time to maintain the correct route. If this process is continued, the radio can be used for continuous positioning and eventually radio navigation. Radio navigation is not limited by time and weather, and is highly accurate, fast and easy to operate. Modern wireless communication technology is more developed, and space communication technology is becoming more mature. Mobile communication has become essential in our daily life. Mobile communication has gone through 1G (analog), 2G (digital), 3G (high-speed) era, and has now entered the 5G period. Since the 3G era, mobile communication has really brought people into the era of multimedia mobile communication, web pages, music, pictures, video, etc. can be realized on smart phones for a good customer experience.

Wireless local area networks are widely used in healthcare, enterprise network coverage, warehouse management, restaurant retail, video surveillance, etc. The WiFi hotspot network logo can be seen everywhere in daily life. In fact, WiFi is a trademark of the WLANA (Wireless Local Area Network Alliance), one of the technical standards for WLANs.

What's the difference between WiFi and Internet? - Quora

In the era of rapid development of information technology, the Internet of Things (IoT) is gaining momentum, a network that connects all objects through the network. Obviously, this scenario is unimaginable if we connect through wired network. The Internet of Things is widely used in many fields such as intelligent transportation, environmental protection, government work, public safety, safe home, intelligent firefighting, industrial monitoring, environmental monitoring, elderly care, personal health, flower cultivation, water system monitoring, food traceability, enemy detection and intelligence gathering, etc. The application prospect is very broad.

Radio Technology in Today’s World

Radio technology is also very present in real life. Radio is needed for the transmission of sound, such as radio telegraphy, AM radio, FM radio, and voice radio used in navigation and aviation. Radio technology is also needed for telephony, television, emergency services, data transmission, Bluetooth, navigation, radar, heating, power, astronomy, and other fields.

Some people sum up radio in this way, saying that it is the “overpass” for people to realize free communication. With the rapid development of radio communication technology, cell phones not only meet people’s needs for free communication anywhere, but also become a personal smart mobile terminal that combines communication, photography, entertainment, financial management, shopping and other functions. As early as 2013, there are data showing that the number of cell phone users in China exceeded 1.1 billion, ranking first in the world. The pagers that were popular across the country, the walkie-talkies used for dispatching and commanding, the Bluetooth used for short-range wireless communication, the Wi-Fi used for wireless local area networks and satellite phones, and so on are all inseparable from the radio. Public mobile communication has evolved through five generations. From the need to make phone calls while on the move to the high-speed download capability of mobile communications (5G), radio has played an important role. Radio is also the “seven rainbows” that enrich people’s cultural life. Radio and television rely on radio waves to bring news from around the world to us every day, thousands of miles away. After decades of development, China’s radio and television network has become the world’s largest radio broadcasting network, and statistics from 2013 show that more than half of the country’s households watch television through the wireless network, with more than 15,000 television relay stations and more than 30,000 television transmitters. It can be said that our convenient life today is built on the application of radio technology.

The Best Indoor HDTV Antenna for 2022 | Reviews by Wirecutter

Focus on Radio Safety

For a long time, the safety of radio has been a matter of concern. Take cognitive radio for example, it faces five major security threats. First, information theft. Since the information transmission medium of radio communication is open space, this greatly reduces the difficulty of illegally intercepting communication signals. And because the interception of signals is a passive behavior, it increases the difficulty of detecting the problem through signal detection methods. Second, malicious interference. The radio receiving antenna is located in the open space, in the reception of useful signals at the same time, but also by the existence of a variety of useless information in the space of interference. For example, some malicious attackers can arbitrarily insert the receiver’s transmission channel to reduce the receiver’s input signal-to-noise ratio, affecting the effectiveness of the communication. In addition, some malicious attackers can make the receiver get wrong information by imitating useful signals. Third, the interference of cognitive users to authorized users. Due to the hidden terminal effect and other environmental factors, the perception of the cognitive user to the primary user is inaccurate and untimely, and the authorized user may be interfered. The unfair phenomenon among users. Fourth, imitation of authorized user attacks. Under the situation of spectrum resources shortage, the limited spectrum is occupied for oneself, and in some malicious attacks, the availability of spectrum resources will be destroyed. Fifth, denial-of-service attacks. In cognitive radio networks, the common control channel is the physical basis for transmitting spectrum-aware information between nodes. By sending a large amount of useless control information, the attacker saturates the control channel and makes the control channel unavailable to other cognitive users. At the same time, cognitive radio faces a number of other security threats. For example, attackers can exploit the security vulnerabilities of various protocols in the application layer to degrade the service quality of cognitive radio through viruses, Trojan horses and other malicious programs.

v radio frequency hazard - SafetyKore

In the face of these security threats, spread spectrum communication technology is an effective way to solve the problem of information theft and interference. The main idea of frequency expansion communication includes direct expansion, frequency hopping, etc. The main idea is to enhance the concealment and interference resistance of the signal by expanding the bandwidth of the communication signal. In addition, a more stringent authentication mechanism can be used to prevent the leakage of information and data. A suitable cryptographic algorithm can make the communication signal unable to provide the information of interest to the eavesdropper even if it is intercepted. Better identification of authorized user signals is a fundamental way to defend against imitation authorized user attacks. To this end, it is possible to perform multidimensional discrimination using physical features other than the signal itself.

In order to raise awareness of the importance of radio and its role as a communication vehicle for educational development, information dissemination, and the dissemination of critical information in natural disasters, UNESCO decided to designate February 13 as World Radio Day on November 3, 2011. While we enjoy the convenience of radio technology, we must also take its safety into account. Various radio services “go their own way” on different frequencies. Radio management agencies ensure the safety and orderliness of radio waves through scientific planning and management of these “roads” to ensure the normal operation of various radio services. Of course, creating a harmonious, green and safe electromagnetic environment also requires the concerted efforts of the whole society.

Qualcomm to revolutionize Sim cards? Telecommunication companies are afraid not to agree

If iSIM technology can be used in smartphones, how far is the retirement of SIM cards?

Vodafone, Qualcomm and Thales demo iSIM standard - GSMArena.com news

Qualcomm recently announced a partnership with Vodafone and Dalis to integrate SIM card functionality into the device’s main processor to demonstrate smartphones with the new iSIM technology. This is the first time iSIM technology is used in a smartphone in the world.

iSIM technology for cell phones for the first time
Qualcomm is demonstrating the Samsung Galaxy Z Flip3 5G, powered by the Email 888 5G chip. Qualcomm said the technology is commercially available on many new devices that use iSIM to connect to mobile services. The media reported that the three companies are developing a new iSIM standard based on eSIM. iSIM integrates SIM technology directly into the device’s main chipset, with key features that eliminate the need for physical space on the SIM card and combine eSIM advantages, including remote SIM configuration for carriers and higher security.

iSIM, the SIM card directly integrated into the smartphone - SHKMGMCNUH

Qualcomm sees multiple advantages to iSIM technology.

Frees up space inside the device, simplifying and enhancing device design and performance.
Integrates SIM functionality with multiple key functions such as GPU, CPU and modem into the device host chipset.
Allows carriers to configure remote SIMs using existing eSIM infrastructures.
Adds mobile service connectivity to a wide range of devices that previously could not have built-in SIM functionality.
Enables integration of mobile services into devices other than cell phones, including AR/VR, tablets, wearables, etc.

Qualcomm demonstrated iSIM technology three years ago at MWC19 in Shanghai, when it was a pure software solution that directly “emulated” a SIM card with encryption, authentication and storage functions using a security module integrated into Qualcomm’s mobile platform. Compared to this time, Qualcomm’s iSIM technology is more usable as it integrates hardware and software directly into the handset.

Qualcomm is not the first company to come up with the idea of iSIM – as early as 2018, ARM made public its iSIM technology, which integrates SIM cards with ARM-based SoCs to enable electronic devices such as cell phones to communicate with carriers. iSIM technology from ARM includes the Kigen OS system and a separate hardware block for secure encryption, which also integrates the mobile application processor, baseband chip and SIM card into a single chip. ARM’s iSIM technology includes the Kigen OS system and a secure and encrypted separate hardware block.

It is easy to see that iSIM is a technology that is in line with the future development trend and is poised to replace physical SIM cards and eSIMs.

The game between chip makers and telecom companies
For most users, most electronic devices are still physical SIM cards. With the shift from feature phones to smartphones, SIM cards are also changing from ordinary SIM cards to Nano SIM cards, which are getting smaller and smaller (from 25×15×0.8mm to 12.3×8.8×0.7mm).

But even so, the Nano SIM card still takes up a lot of space, watches, glasses and other smart wearable devices, the physical SIM card is like a “giant”. In order to solve this embarrassing dilemma, GSM Association released programmable SIM card, i.e. eSIM card, in early 2016, mainly for wearable devices, Internet of Things, tablet and other devices.

From the perspective of the industry environment at that time, eSIM was actually a result of the industry’s development demand – to provide basic connectivity for the coming era of interconnection of all things. According to data, by 2025, the number of IoT connections will reach 10 billion, and the demand for SIMs based on hive network management will reach 30 billion. eSIM will account for most of the IoT SIM market.

Unlike the physical SIM card, eSIM can be directly integrated into the device without the need of reserving a card slot in the terminal device, and the problem of poor access and easy loss and damage is also reduced. In addition, eSIM corresponding numbers can be downloaded remotely and switched with telecommunication providers at will, and the risk of SIM card duplication is reduced.

To some extent eSIM and iSIM have similar features, but the biggest difference is the built-in strategy – eSIM is a dedicated chip that connects to the processor, but iSIM is embedded in the main SoC along with the device processor; the latter is more integrated.

The iSIM is compliant with GSMA (Global System for Mobile Association) specifications and allows for increased memory capacity, enhanced performance and higher system integration. With the introduction of the iSIM card, the single chip is no longer required as with the eSIM, eliminating the dedicated space allocated for SIM services and embedding it directly into the device application processor.

Despite the advantages of eSIM and iSIM over physical SIM cards, there are not many applications for eSIM and iSIM, especially the latter, in terms of practical applications. According to the industry, “iSIM is an upgrade on the basis of eSIM, and there is not much difficulty to realize the application of iSIM technology, but the real difficulty lies with the telecommunication companies.

To realize the application of iSIM technology, chip makers, handset makers and telecom operators are indispensable. From the actual situation, chip makers are actively promoting, and for cell phone makers, the lack of SIM card is more beneficial than harmful to the internal space of cell phone, but only for telecommunication companies, iSIM has encountered obstacles. If the telecoms are completely open and let the chip makers integrate the SIM card function into the SoC, users will be able to switch the telecoms by themselves, and the telecoms will lose their meaning to the users and their main profit source will be greatly reduced. Obviously, this is not something the carriers want to see.

According to Counterpoint Research, iSIM is expected to be supported by nearly 5 billion consumer electronics products by 2025, with smartphones, smartwatches, CPE (client devices) and other major application teams. It is easy to imagine that if iSIM can be used in smart phones and other smart electronic devices, SIM cards are not far away from being retired.