Before the age of nationalism, Finns were Swedish subjects, which meant they paid taxes to the King of Sweden, served in the Swedish army, and so on.
The hallmarks of civilization at the time – Christianity, writing, organized armies, etc. – were closely associated with Swedish rule in Finland.
A map showing some of the areas that were temporarily under Swedish rule after the conquest of Finland – what was actually ruled was a different matter
But this applies mainly to the coastal areas (and to some extent to Tavastria). Outside of these areas, Finland is basically Finnish, where Finnish-speaking people have lived for thousands of years.
The Swedish crown was primarily interested in economic and military matters, and was less concerned with nationalistic assimilation efforts, so there was no real effort to turn Finns into Swedes.
As long as the Finns paid their taxes and provided good soldiers, the Swedish crown was happy. If they wanted to advance in the army or in the church, then they had to learn Swedish.
Having said that, people have been moving back and forth across the Baltic Sea for centuries, through assimilation, and modern genetic testing has proven this fact (my daughter has Finnish blood on her mother’s side, probably going back a century), so in Sweden people make Finns into Swedes by having children, and vice versa.
However, language and culture are not passed on genetically; Finnish and Swedish are similar to Chinese and Korean. Except for loanwords, Finnish has no real similarity to Swedish, just as Danish is close to Swedish in my home country of Scania.
When nationalism and anti-imperialism emerged, the Finns were Russian subjects and therefore no longer a problem for the Swedish authorities.
Swedish is taught in Finland as part of the school curriculum, but with the declining importance of Sweden in the global environment and the increasing importance of English, it is a dying practice that is basically only retained for historical reasons.
This Microsoft’s acquisition of Activision Blizzard has caused a shock in the industry, but I did not expect Apple to steal the home, the Microsoft Xbox series of game machine engineers to poach.
According to Windows Central reporter Jez Corden in the latest episode of the Xbox Two podcast, rumors that Apple will launch its own console have existed for some time.
He said, “I’ve heard that Apple has been tapping Xbox engineers to build its own console, but I don’t know if it’s for VR games or something like the metaverse. He said there is no concrete documentary evidence to verify this, which is what he heard.
More interestingly, when asked who else would be willing to compete with other console makers like Apple and Microsoft, the journalist said the only company that might want to go head-to-head would be Chinese gaming company Tencent.
There’s no need to be surprised, it’s probably true that Apple wants to make game consoles.
In 1995 at the Tokyo Game Show, Bandai Japan presented a new, powerful game machine: Pippin (Bandai Pippin ATMARK).
The reason why it is said to be powerful is that it is not only equipped with the Power PC603 chip and supports up to 14M memory expansion, but also equipped with the Mac7 simplified system.
Yes, the Mac7 mentioned here is Apple’s Mac, which is the only gaming machine released by Apple so far.
This machine looks like a side lying down the bulky computer host, in fact, the working principle is the same as the Mac computer.
Two handle ports can be plugged into the mouse, plus an optical drive and a floppy drive.
It even comes with a keyboard pad ……
Although the graphics are now obsolete, in 1995, the color and animation of this game were considered to be in the front echelon, regardless of whether the game was fun or not.
So how did Apple think of making a game machine in the first place? How come there is no impression at all?
In fact, before the birth of Pippin, Apple was not doing well at that time, with Steve Jobs being fired by the board of directors, and Macintosh’s market share declining sharply, coupled with its own mismanagement and other problems, it was in a whirlpool of low revenue.
In order to recover the situation, Apple management appointed Michael Spindler, who had been in the company for many years, to be the new CEO of Apple in an attempt to save the company’s declining profits.
In four words, the company is in danger.
Before he became CEO, Michael Spindler was best known for his performance in getting Macs to blossom in Europe, and was a typical do-it-yourselfer who wouldn’t beep if he could do more work.
So after he took office, his eyes still fell on the Mac, through layoffs, cut research funding, Apple under his leadership, the first two years did have some improvement.
However, the overall downward trend of the business did not change much, so he began to make big reforms, including one that would license the Mac OS system to third-party hardware manufacturers.
This decision is now Apple will not even do, but at that time, in order to survive, the company can only give it a try.
But I don’t know what Apple was thinking, even to go to the game machine this muddy water ……
The game machine market in the 1980s and 1990s was divided among Nintendo, Sony and Sega, and foreigners grew up playing with plumbers and Sonic.
What kind of scene is that? God fight ah, business competition is not easier than now.
After Apple simply conceived Pippin, it did not launch it itself, but licensed it to Bandai, a third-party Japanese game company, for release.
It is obvious that Apple’s decision to take such a risk is to turn on the lights in the toilet – looking for death.
The inexperienced Apple has forced the Pippin, which was originally positioned as a low-end computer, to be labeled as a “gaming machine”, forming a stark contrast between its strong performance and weak gaming ecosystem.
Oh yes, its price is also very expensive, up to about 64,800 yen (about RMB 3,500 yuan), while the lowest Nintendo N64 host as long as 22,978 yen, Pippin is fully three times more expensive.
Later, only 2 years in the Japanese market Apple Pippin game machine, after 42,000 units sold sadly out of history …
At the same time, causing Apple and the joint development of Bandai company lost more than 6.5 billion yen, and even Bandai’s subsidiary responsible for this matter directly dissolved in situ, known as Apple’s black history.
Interestingly, although this failed product accelerated the departure of Michael Spindler, it also accelerated the return of Steve Jobs.
After his return, Jobs immediately axed the Pippin project and launched the new Mac, but that’s a story for another time.
After the failure of Pippin, Apple has not had any official involvement with the game console.
Because of the App Store and the popularity of the iPhone and iPad, Apple’s iOS has become the key platform of choice for many mobile game developers.
Since Apple already has its own “game platform”, is it a fake news that Apple is going to develop a console as mentioned at the beginning of the article, without any value?
After all, the big move of Microsoft mentioned at the beginning of the article proves that the current situation where Nintendo, Sony and Microsoft are fighting for supremacy (in fact, Nintendo has come out of its own unique path) is likely to be reshuffled again.
Microsoft threw $68.7 billion to acquire Activision Blizzard, the largest acquisition in gaming history, making Microsoft the third highest revenue gaming company in the world, after Tencent and Sony.
The purpose of Microsoft’s purchase is to acquire many familiar games from Activision Blizzard, such as World of Warcraft, Hearthstone Legends, Warcraft, Vanguard, Call of Duty, Heroes of the Storm, and other IPs.
This will undoubtedly strengthen Microsoft’s XGP service and the game lineup of Xbox series consoles.
The XGP service, simply put, is Microsoft’s subscription-based game service, which allows you to enjoy hundreds of titles as long as you pay more than ten dollars a month for a membership.
This is different from the previous route of players first buying a game console and then buying games, allowing Microsoft to quickly accumulate more than 25 million users worldwide.
Light users and heavy users are all accepted
This wave of divine operation, Microsoft not only took Sony next door by surprise, resulting in Sony’s share price steaming 20 billion overnight, but also let other manufacturers see the very bright money scene of the game subscription system.
This is not new, another popular worldwide is Netflix (Netflix), only Netflix is doing the film and television drama business.
So, as the industry leader, Apple will definitely notice this phenomenon, 2 years ago, the trial launch of Apple Arcade game subscription service, is the best proof.
Now as long as you make a home console that can use the App Store, pull some third-party game makers to develop games, it is entirely possible to do things, after all, it is not bad money.
Perhaps the future Apple launch folding screen iPhone, VR glasses, will then more than one game machine may also say, and even game machine may come out first.
Then the question arises, Sony wants to win this game, how much money to pay, how many companies to acquire it ……
Burma is located on the South Central Peninsula, the largest continent on the Southeast Asian continent, and like Thailand, the majority of its people are Hinayana Buddhists. Despite its rich natural resources, it is also a typical developing country and is ranked as one of the least developed countries in the world. The ethnic groups of Burma are widely believed to have migrated from the Tibetan plateau and northern Burma, and each wave of migration has forced them to move south. As a result, the Mon, Chin, Arakan, Shan, and Karen peoples gradually settled on the high plains. Initially, there was no political structure in the area and it was mostly composed of villages, with the family being the smallest part.
According to the British Haraway’s History of Burma, Indian culture, art and Buddhism were first introduced to Burma by the Mon around 300 AD. In fact, the largest state in Burma was the Mid-Burma Valley state of Billiton, around the 1st-10th centuries AD. Of course, in addition to these, the Mon established a new state, roughly distributed along the Dhanasarin coast in southern Burma, the lower Sittang River, the Irrawaddy River valley, the upper Irrawaddy River, eastern Burma, and the Rakhine state in western Burma.
The Great Golden Pagoda of Burma In Burma, the Mon were the first people to establish a nation. The Mon lived in the lower reaches of the Irrawaddy River in southern Burma, and by the 10th century had formed the Langasso (today’s southernmost part of Burma, Tannasalin), Tuva (today’s Tuva in southern Burma), Thong (today’s estuary of the Salween River), Pegu (today’s Pegu in Burma), and Bawsang (today’s Bawsang in southern Burma).
The Shan, according to the Burmese History of the Bopha letter, entered Upper Burma in the 7th century, around the 1st century A.D. They traveled south to Yunnan, China, on the border with Burma, and founded the Shan state in 650 A.D.
The Karen were the early inhabitants of Burma, and they lived mainly in Burma. According to Heshondra’s History of Burma, the Karen migrated to Burma from southern China in the 6th and 7th centuries, and some scholars have even speculated that they entered the Mon-Khmer region around the 5th century AD.
The Burmese are the main ethnic group in Burma, originating from the Gobi Desert in northwest China and the “Qiang” people of Gansu in the northwestern Tibetan Plateau. Forced by feudal rulers to flee to northeastern Tibet, they fled southward over the mountains around the 2nd century A.D. After centuries of dormancy, they returned to the Southern Empire. They moved from the Southern Empire to Burma in the mid-9th and 10th centuries, eventually settling in the Nyingchi region.
Later, the Myanmarese, through their ability to train a superior cavalry, conquered the other peoples of Burma. As they traveled through the southern imperial kingdom, they learned from the locals to use water buffalo, terraced fields, planted rice, learned warfare, and tamed horses.
Pagoda in Bagan, Burma With their large population and ability to learn, the Burmese grew and established several dynasties in Burma. In 1044, Anuruddha established the first unified feudal society in Burma, known as Bagan, and was the first Burmese king.
In 1057, Anuruddha himself led his troops southward to the Mon people and other countries, and Dzung and Pegu surrendered to Bagan one after another. In Dzung, Anuruddha obtained a large number of Buddhist scriptures and monks and brought them to Bagan, which had a profound influence on the development of Bagan. By the time Anuruddha died twenty years later, his influence had extended to most of Burma, including Arakan province in the west, Dhanasaram in the south, and the Shan mountains in the east.
After the fall of Bagan, parts of central and southern Burma remained under Burmese domination. At this time, the rise of the Shan states led to the establishment of several small states in northern Burma, and in 1312, the youngest of the three Shan brothers, Singhoshu, moved his capital to Binya, the Binya dynasty, and three years later, his son, Shuyun, established a new dynasty in central Burma. Thereafter, the kings of both countries died at the hands of Dado Min Phya, a descendant of Singhasit.
Burmese girl In 1539, Debin Shwe Thieu captured Pakok and soon unified the whole Burma and created the Toungoo Dynasty. 1548, he marched to Siam, but returned to Burma and was assassinated by the guards. In 1593, he made five expeditions to Siam, but they all ended in failure and he was soon assassinated. His son, Leong Un, rose to fame in the kingdom of Ava and tried to reunite Burma, but at the last moment, his son, Ahnophelon, inherited the throne. In order to consolidate his rule, he led his army southward and conquered Pehmiya and Toungoo, “recovering” the Portuguese Salem, and it was not until King Darun that the economy of the Kingdom of Toungoo was restored to its original state.
In 1752, the Musso chief Yongyiya occupied Dagon, a Mon stronghold, and renamed it Yangon, bringing Burma back under his rule. Upon Yongdia’s death, his second son, Monyat, succeeded to the throne.
The British launched an invasion of Rangoon in 1824, citing a conflict along the Indo-Burmese border. In the battle of Rangoon, the Burmese army suffered more than 5,000 casualties. In March of the following year, the British army moved north, and the Burmese army was immediately thrown into chaos when the dynastic general Bandua was killed at the Battle of Daw Lyu Phet.
In February 1826, the British army continued northward and occupied Yandapo, near the Burmese capital. The Kampong Dynasty was forced to sign the Treaty of Yangtapo on the 24th, which was a disgrace to Britain. The treaty included: 1) the Burmese government gave up the rule of Assam and Manipo; 2) Burma’s Arakan and Tanasarin were given to Britain; 3) Burma paid 10 million rupees (i.e. £1 million); 4) Britain agreed to send an ambassador to the Burmese capital; 5) British ships passed through Burmese ports and merchant ships were exempted from taxation.
In 1837, the Treaty of Yandavati was completely abrogated and the British ambassador in Burma was expelled. 1852, Britain again declared war on Burma and the British shipowners were arrested, leading to the Second World War. On April 5 of the same year, British troops again occupied Rangoon. On the 20th of December, the Governor-General of India declared Pakokku to be British, and in 1862, Arakan, Tanasarin and Pakokku were placed under the administration of the Governor-General of India in Lower Burma.
In October 1885, the Third World War broke out between Britain and Burma on the pretext of timber smuggling by Burmese merchants in Bombay. In November of last year, the Burmese dynasty collapsed and Burma became a British colony.
What is inflation? Inflation, while important, is often used as a marketing board in the financial industry. Before selling your fixed deposit, insurance, funds, or even buying stocks, you will first move out of the inflation threat.
In fact, apart from stocks, there are many financial products that are not necessarily anti-inflationary. In particular, there are some financial products with low returns and even far more dangerous than inflation, and they will use inflation as a marketing slogan.
All in all, if you know inflation, it’s actually not that scary.
At the moment of writing, toilet paper has recently risen by 30%, and some people are starting to say “the inflation monster is coming” and so on. In fact, this statement is very strange: Inflation has always been there.
Inflation refers to the continuous increase in general prices, which simply means that the purchasing power of your money has shrunk year by year.
If inflation is 3%, that means the purchasing power of your currency shrinks by 3% per year. Is 3% a lot or a little? An analogy can be drawn: If a hamburger is now $100 and inflation is 3%, After 24 years, your $100 will only get you half a hamburger (a quick calculation can use the rule of 72).
24 years is a long time right, the global average inflation rate is also about 3%, but in theory wage growth will offset inflation (note that it is theoretical). For example, the salary level also increases by 3% per year, which completely offsets the impact of inflation.
The actual global inflation is mostly between 1 and 2% per year.
But why does it say that the average is 3%?
Because large-scale disasters such as wars or oil crises occur every few decades on the earth, the annual inflation at this time is likely to be 20% to 50%. In the long run, these extreme values will raise the overall average inflation.
Inflation is a composite data and does not reflect the rise of every commodity.
It is worth noting that inflation is a composite index of multiple commodity prices and is a concept of an average. While most things go up in price because of inflation in the long run, the increases are not the same.
The price of hamburgers and the price of real estate are not necessarily similar over time. It is not easy to estimate the impact of a single commodity, and we will only use the inflation rate to make an estimate.
How does inflation happen?
People’s purchasing power becomes lower. It could be that too much money is printed, reducing the value of the currency (the traditional definition of inflation), or it could be that all the necessities of life have become relatively expensive (aka rising prices).
There are many possibilities for a decrease in the value of the currency. The more common reason is that the government is printing money. The government uses public spending to invest in public construction or debt repayment, so that money flows into the private market. When the total amount of money increases, its value slowly decreases.
There may also be political instability in the country due to war or disaster. Because the money in this era is not gold, but metal coins or paper money. They have no real value. Therefore, the value of money needs to be legally guaranteed by the government. When the government is unstable or the country is in jeopardy, the law naturally cannot guarantee the value of money. Inflation at this time may reduce the purchasing power of the currency by 50% or even 1000%. This is called hyperinflation and is prone to occur in some extremely volatile countries.
For example, Zimbabwe once issued 100 trillion yuan banknotes due to political turmoil. But 100 trillion Zimbabwe dollars can only buy half a loaf of bread.
Who does inflation affect?
Those most negatively affected by inflation are those who hold a pile of cash or deposits.
For example, say you have saved a bunch of money and plan to spend it slowly in retirement. At that time, the purchasing power of this money will gradually shrink over time.
Assets that are not resistant to inflation include:
Labor Insurance Annuity
Foreign currency assets
Cash in hand
These assets, you can collectively refer to as “monetary assets”
The most doubtful one should be bonds. The reason is very simple: for example, a bond promises to give you 10,000 yuan in interest every month in the future. This 10,000 yuan will not increase due to the increase in inflation, so the purchasing power will also shrink over time, saving Commodities with fixed interest rates, such as insurance or time deposits, are also incapable of fighting inflation unless they have a special mechanism.
And the least affected are those who hold valuable assets.
Because only money has become lower in value, the value of relative item assets has not become lower. Whether it is housing real estate, stocks, stock funds, gold and silver, it can continue to maintain its value under inflation.
This is also the reason why wealthy people mostly hold many real assets.
It’s worth mentioning that “debt” itself is usually also anti-inflationary.
Inflation usually reduces the impact of debt. Because it means that the current borrowing is more valuable, and the future repayment is less valuable. The premise is that you use debt to buy assets, otherwise debt is just debt.
Note here: not all assets that can store value mean that you should hold it!
If it’s a commodity with a low rate of return, or a commodity that doesn’t consistently appreciate in value, it won’t necessarily improve your finances even if it’s not affected by inflation.
The return on an asset is subject to inflation, but that doesn’t mean you should accept low returns in order to fight inflation.
The more cash and deposits, the more inflation hurts.
The higher the proportion of non-cash entity assets, the smaller the impact.
Inflation affects the richer the more.
If you only have $100,000 in savings, 3% inflation is equivalent to losing $3,000 a year. But if you have $100 million in savings, 3% inflation is equivalent to losing $3 million a year, For people with a salary of 22K, it takes 11 years to save up to 3 million, but people with 100 million deposits generally have higher incomes. So if you don’t have money, inflation can do you limited damage. Thinking about how to make money first is better than worrying about inflation.
As for those who have accumulated a certain amount of assets, anti-inflation is a topic you must face. The bigger the asset, the bigger the inflationary impact.
How to watch inflation numbers?
Inflation is reflected in rising commodity prices. Therefore, we usually observe the consumer price index and wholesale price index, and we can refer to the information released by the government.
When the price index increases by 3%, it also means that the purchasing power of the currency decreases by 3% compared with the same period in the past.
Each commodity is not equally affected by inflation. When I was in high school 15 years ago, a pack of snacks cost only 5 dollars. Now a pack of snacks costs 10 dollars, which is equivalent to an annual inflation rate of about 4.7%.
Will inflation be reflected in wages?
The economics textbook is telling you that, because the profits of business operations are theoretically anti-inflation, the salaries paid to employees should not be affected by inflation.
But in reality, if you open a newspaper from 20 years ago, people’s salaries didn’t go up at all, they went down.
It should be noted that the inflation index is only an “average”
As mentioned earlier, the inflation index is a comprehensive data.
Because not everything rises the same, the inflation index only reflects the overall average. Maybe the inflation index shows 2%, but consumer goods or real estate related to our lives rose 5% to 10%, which is still a huge impact.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of inflation?
Money is the lubricant of the economy
Inflation represents an increase in the supply of money in the market, that is, an increase in lubricant. If it grows slowly, it can have the effect of promoting the flow of resources.
Before the invention of currency, people could only barter, and it was difficult to preserve value. Through the characteristics of easy preservation and easy cutting of currency, it can be used as a lubricant for the smooth development of the economy. So it is generally believed that a little inflation is a good thing. If we are going to barter in this era, then the economy must go back 500 years first.
If inflation is too high, the value of money in people’s hands will shrink rapidly.
Therefore, people will not want to hold their own currency, but instead hold real assets or other national currencies. When money is not used, its value depreciates faster, which is the origin of hyperinflation. This has a huge impact on people’s lives. Therefore, the government usually deliberately controls inflation to avoid falling into hyperinflation or deflation.
In short, from the point of view of modern economic theory, it is believed that inflation should not be too high, nor should it be deflationary in turn. Keeping inflation a little tame is best for the economy. Theoretically this is the case, but the actual situation remains to be seen.
How does the government control inflation?
For the people, if these necessities of life are too expensive, it will be very painful. For the benefit of the people, it will naturally become the responsibility of the government to control inflation not too high. (It’s not so much a responsibility, it’s better to control prices so that the government will not be overthrown by riots)
There are usually two schools of thought about government intervention in the economy. One school advocates that the government should intervene in the economy, expand spending to increase demand, and use demand to drive supply, which is called the Keynesian school. Another school advocates that the government should not intervene in the economy, and that supply and demand will gradually balance in the long run, which is called the classical school of economics.
In terms of government intervention, “lowering interest rates” and “increasing government spending” are considered to be ways to stimulate the economy.
There are two ways the government can control inflation:
Reduce public sector spending In this way, the supply of money circulating to the private sector will be reduced. When the supply of money is small, the value will naturally decrease slowly or even increase. If the inflation rate is negative and less than 0, such as -3%, it is called deflation.
Conversely, if you increase public spending, more money will reduce the value of money and inflation will increase.
Raise interest rates An increase in interest rates means that the interest on borrowing and saving money will increase. The interest on depositing money rises, so people deposit money in circulation in the bank, and there will be less money in circulation. The interest on borrowing money has risen, and people don’t want to borrow money because the interest will become more expensive, and the currency in circulation will also decrease. Through this method, it is possible to compare the overall suppression of the amount of currency in circulation.
Conversely, lowering interest rates will increase inflation.
But I think government intervention is not necessarily useful, it is just a mainstream policy under political correctness.
Asset allocation to fight inflation?
For some institutions that manage tens of billions of dollars, the annual impact of inflation can be as high as hundreds of millions of dollars. Therefore, there is a link in asset allocation, which is to add anti-inflation effects to the investment portfolio.
There is usually a certain proportion of anti-inflation assets (stocks, real estate REITs, raw materials, gold, anti-inflation bonds, etc.) in the assets as an anti-inflation configuration.
Conclusion: Understanding inflation is important for investment and financial management, but inflation has little impact on your life
Let’s talk about the importance of inflation to investment and financial management. What we can learn from the above is:
Over a long period of time, the annual inflation is about 3%, which means that purchasing power depreciates by half every 24 years.
Inflation affects our assets for a long time
The more cash, the greater the impact
Assets are divided into inflation-resistant and non-inflation-resistant
Compensation is affected by inflation, but that doesn’t mean you have to accept low compensation to fight inflation
In theory, wages will rise with inflation, but in practice they do not.
Why does inflation have little effect on your life? The reason is simple: because it’s bound to happen, it’s no use worrying
Just like you will get old, not only you, but others too, modern people, ancient people too. And inflation, like getting old, is bound to happen. You just need to be ready to allocate your assets to the best investment. As long as it is not a large proportion of cash assets, there is no need to be afraid of it at all.
Simply use numbers to prove that you don’t need to be afraid of inflation
If I tell you:
“In 24 years your salary will be double what it is now.”
You will definitely say: “It’s only twice! Too little, right?”
“Prices will double in 24 years.”
24 years also doubled, not much, right?
I think the reason a lot of people react so strongly, other than media rendering, is because humans are inherently loss-averse. We hate increasing losses more than decreasing profits. So every time prices go up, people will naturally react violently, that’s all.
The disintegration of the Soviet Union was an inevitable event, but the loss of the Cold War by the Soviet Union was an inevitable event. Ancient Russia, like China, is a typical representative of a large number of people. This kind of country is characterized by its huge size. As long as it is united enough, it is almost impossible to lose an overall battle. This is a typical case whether it is the Soviet Union’s resistance to the mustache or the Republic of China’s resistance to Japan. As long as countries of the size of China and Russia are united enough, it is impossible for them to be defeated by external forces. Even if it is as fragile as the Republic of China, it can rely on its size advantage to carry a small Japan.
However, the characteristics of this kind of country are that it has a huge amount of resources and may have a high international status, but most of the time, its people are not doing well because the per capita resources are not much. Russia’s situation is more special. Its per capita resources are absolutely worth a lot, but limited by the difficulty of development and traffic conditions, it is difficult to ensure that everyone can enjoy these resources. (For a counter example, you can look at the United States. There are many people in the same land, but the superior climate and transportation conditions make the economic foundations of the United States and Russia very different.) In the era when Tsarist Russia was called the European military police, Tsarist Russia was still engaged in serfdom. When the First World War broke out, European countries had already entered a civilized society. The soldiers of Tsarist Russia were also called “gray animals”, and there were a large number of bandits and blood relatives in the territory. As a country, no monarch in Europe dares to despise Tsarist Russia, but as a commoner, living in Russia is vastly different from living in Western Europe. At the end of World War II, the Soviet Union counterattacked into the German mainland. After visiting the German homes, the Soviet soldiers were puzzled from the bottom of their hearts-they already lived in such luxury, why did they come to invade us?
The same is true of the Qing Dynasty. As the representative of China’s humiliating dynasty, the Qing Dynasty was full of martial arts in most of the time. Asian countries have few rivals, and the Nepalese, who cannot be beaten by the British, can handle the Qing Dynasty. With an agricultural country, it can deploy its forces into the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and win the war. This reflects the overall war power of a big country like China. After the Opium War and Shimonoseki, Xin Chou, in the final analysis, there was a problem within the Qing Dynasty. If the Qing Dynasty was a Han Dynasty, China would be so miserable in modern times. But the people of Qing Dynasty lived like slaves. When Macartney visited China, he was surprised at such a powerful country in Qing Dynasty. How did the people live like this? Thanks Dade even for some leftovers. This is the embarrassment of a country like China and Russia. In terms of material production, both countries are undoubtedly extremely rich. However, the population has greatly leveled these resources, making it difficult for the people of the two countries to live a richer life even in the prosperous times. It is normal for the country to be strong and the people to be weak. The situation of the Soviet Union is even more special. Although the population density of the Soviet Union is much lower than that of China, its climate and traffic conditions are also far worse than those of China, and the degree of development is far less than that of China. Although Russia’s territory is large, its natural conditions cannot be called superior (otherwise, it would not have such a large territory for him to monopolize). The Slavs have always been considered aliens by Europeans, mainly because of their poor living conditions.
If you look at the Soviet Union as a nation-state, what he is good at is total warfare, not living a good life. The living standard of Russians has never surpassed that of Western Europe, and the Soviet Union has played an extraordinary level. Therefore, what the Soviet Union can win is a hot war, not a cold war. Among all the ways of confrontation, the Soviet Union had to choose the worst path – the Cold War. Not only to engage in an arms race, but also than living standards. The biggest problem with the Soviet Union was that the tone was too high. The Soviet Union was a typical “savior” regime, which did not exist as a nation-state from the very beginning. Trotsky’s soul has never left the Soviet Union, and the Soviet Union has always claimed that it should be the arsenal of world revolution, burning itself to save mankind. In the official declaration of the Soviet Union, the happiness of the Soviet people has never been the ultimate goal of struggle. Their ultimate goal is to swept the world’s global opposition and realize the great unity of mankind.
The slogan sounds hot, but it costs money. Objectively speaking, with the level of science and technology and material resources of the Soviet Union, if they are properly deployed, if only one is chosen to solve the arms race and the lives of the people, they can handle it. There is no problem. Not to mention the capability of the arms race, everyone can see it. Under the Soviet Union’s policy of using military force, the level of armament of the Warsaw Pact has never been lower than that of NATO. If the Soviet Union is willing to maintain such a situation, it can continue to support the military confrontation with the United States, no problem. What if you don’t engage in military competition, but only in the lives of the people? In fact, it is also possible, at least it will not be left behind too much by Europe and the United States. Cut off more than half of the Soviet Union’s five million troops, cut two-thirds of the 140,000 tanks and armored vehicles, withdraw the troops from all over the world, and stop the huge amount of aid to Asia, Africa and Latin America. The resources are totally astronomical. According to Gorbachev’s recollection, when he took over, the Soviet Union’s military expenditure accounted for 40% of the fiscal budget and 20% of the total output value, which was even close to the level of a wartime country. If it can be rationally allocated, even if it is a planned economy, the living standards of the Soviet people can go up a lot. Kosygin’s reforms and Andropov’s reforms proved that the planned economy of the Soviet Union has not yet reached the point of exhaustion, and it is very possible to gradually reform with reasonable measures and to prosper again. However, if you do both of them, you won’t be able to do it.
The Cold War is such a struggle – you can’t relax militarily, you can’t fall behind in technology, and your people’s living standards can’t be poor, otherwise your social system will be backward! So the Soviet people’s sense of disparity is very strong. On the one hand, oneself is a first world country, the big brother of the proletariat, the core of the world. Domestic rockets go to the sky and aircraft carriers go to sea, aircraft carrier nuclear submarines run across the ocean, 60,000 tanks crush Western Europe, and tens of thousands of nuclear bombs are the ballast of the world’s proletariat. However, right now you are struggling to even buy some good toilet paper, the color TV will explode as soon as you use it, no one will repair your sewer pipes, and your family of five is crowded into an old building of 60 square meters, sharing the bathroom and kitchen with others. At this point you must be thinking – why is all this? If liberating human beings is to live a life like mine, then what is the point of liberating human beings? Every time I see imported goods from Japan and Western Europe, I get the feeling that they don’t need our liberation.
In fact, whenever I look back at the history of the Cold War, I feel the richness of the Soviet Union’s material resources. A large number of Asian, African and Latin American countries such as North Korea, Vietnam, Yemen, and Angola are all blood-letting tanks of the Soviet Union, and Afghanistan is a super-gold-eating beast. However, under this circumstance, the Soviet Union can still maintain armaments on a terrifying scale, and under such corrupt conditions of the CPSU, the common people are still living a decent life, and I have to sigh that Big Brother has a solid foundation. The disintegration of the Soviet Union, for the Soviet people, is a large-scale “Dragon Yingtai”-style carnival – we don’t want the rise of a big country, but only the dignity of the small people. Although it was later proved that without the rise of a great power, the Soviet people did not gain the dignity of a small citizen. But this was an afterthought, and for the Soviets at the time, they definitely expected change more than the status quo. Many people say that before the collapse of the Soviet Union, more than 70% of the Soviet people agreed to keep the Soviet Union. But what they didn’t say was that the vast majority of them agreed to maintain a new Soviet Union, not a socialist one. The Soviet Union regarded the Soviet people as the fuel for the world revolution, and the common people were burned to ashes and disheartened.
On September 15, 1950, the United Nations Commander-in-Chief MacArthur, with the U.S. 10th Army under the cover of the Navy’s 7th Task Force, carried out an amphibious assault landing on the coast of Inchon, South Korea. The North Korean army suffered a major strategic surprise attack. Slight resistance; on September 16, the 1st Marine Division had connected the beachheads into a front, and the city of Incheon was captured by the South Korean Marines. On September 17, the 7th U.S. Infantry Division came ashore from the beachhead, followed by a steady stream of weapons, equipment and supplies, and the Inchon landing was declared a success.
The strategic effect of the Inchon landing was huge. Seoul (now Seoul) was captured by the United Nations forces led by the United States on the 25th, and the main rear line of communication of the North Korean army besieged in Busan was immediately cut off. Not only was the siege of Busan resolved, but also caused The main force of the North Korean army collapsed. The U.S. military chased north, crossed the 38th parallel, entered North Korea, and captured the North Korean capital, Pyongyang, on October 19. Before the Chinese Volunteer Army intervened, victory was already in sight for the U.S. military. However, when the proposal to land in Incheon was first proposed, it was met with great opposition and resistance.
On June 25, 1950, the Korean War broke out in Yan. At that time, the South Korean troops were weak and weak, and according to the assessment, their strength was only able to carry out “police tasks”, so they were immediately defeated by the North Korean army. The news of North Korea’s invasion of South Korea shocked the world. The then U.S. President Truman authorized the dispatch of the U.S. Navy and Air Force on the Korean Peninsula, and ordered the Eighth Army Corps, commanded by Lieutenant General Walker, to implement combat readiness. Its advance force, Task Force Smith, was immediately dispatched to South Korea. The 7th Fleet cruised the Taiwan Strait. On July 7, the United Nations passed Resolution 84, whereby member states send troops to participate in the war under the “joint command” chaired by the United States, with U.S. Marshal MacArthur serving as the commander-in-chief of the United Nations.
The proposal to land in Incheon was opposed by the command system The combat troops of the U.S. 8th Corps arrived one after another, but they were unable to stop the overwhelming North Korean army, and the U.S. troops were driven back to Pusan Port, the southernmost tip of the Korean Peninsula. The “United Nations Army” was determined to maintain this last ring of defense with Busan as the center and the main force of the U.S. 8th Army. In order to save the crisis and reverse the overall strategic situation, MacArthur conceived of landing at the central location of the south bank of the Korean Peninsula and the Incheon Port in the southwest of Seoul, cutting off the North Korean strategic communication line in one fell swoop.
However, the proposal to land in Inchon was almost completely opposed by the US military command system. Washington believed that the location was too far away from Busan, and I was afraid that the role of the landing counter-offensive would not have an impact on the 8th Army, which was struggling far away at the southern end. In terms of technology, the planning staff of the US Marine Corps also held a negative attitude, because the geographical conditions of the Incheon Port area were totally unsuitable for the implementation of amphibious assault landings. At this time, the U.S. Navy has experienced the baptism of the Pacific War, and has been extremely familiar with the relevant technical and tactical principles of amphibious landing. According to their knowledge and experience of amphibious landing, it is a taboo to implement amphibious landing in the Inchon area.
The sea near Incheon has one of the highest tides in the world. The water flows eastward, and after thousands of years of scouring, a vast mudflat is formed; when the tide is low, the mudflat extends about 6,000 yards from the coast. In addition, the waterway entering and leaving the port of Incheon is curved and narrow. If there is no navigational aid for the registration of the waterway, and sailing under enemy fire, it will be extremely dangerous to enter and leave the port. Furthermore, there is Wolmi Island 800 yards outside the west side of Incheon Port, which is connected to the port area by a causeway, which covers the entire port area, so Wolmi Island has become a good fire spot for restraining activities inside and outside Incheon Port. Although the US Marine Corps has accumulated a lot of experience in amphibious assault landing operations in World War II, it is a new challenge for them to implement amphibious assault landing in the middle of a large city. As one U.S. Marine Corps officer put it: “If you list all the taboos in amphibious warfare, it is exactly the description of the Incheon landing. Most of those involved in the plan believed that if the Incheon landing was successful, all the teachings would need to be reworked. Write.”
MacArthur was unmoved and put it into practice However, coach MacArthur was not moved by these objections. He insisted on breaking the established preconceptions, pushing the entire plan to be completed, and with the unremitting efforts of a few Marine Corps staff, the entire combat plan was formulated and finally put into practice. The program, known as “Operation Chrome,” was carried out in coordination with the U.S. Army’s 10th Corps and Lieutenant Admiral Strubo’s 7th Fleet. The 10th Army has jurisdiction over the 1st Marine Division and the 7th Infantry Division. The 1st Marine Division will perform amphibious assault landings. After the beachhead is consolidated, the 7th Infantry Division will then go ashore and expand inland. However, before the main landing, the Marines must first capture Wolmido Island outside Incheon Port to create favorable conditions for the subsequent landing at Incheon Port.
Capturing Moon Island and kicking off the landing In order to make the firepower of the North Korean army on Wolmi Island lose the role of threatening the landing force, the U.S. Navy Higgins Task Force, with 6 destroyers and 2 cruisers, carried out shelling on Wolmi Island for two consecutive days two days before the main operation. . The North Korean artillery on the island also returned fire on the US warship, but after all, it was unable to resist the concentrated fire of the US warship. By the end of the 14th, the firepower of the North Korean army on the island had disappeared. After the threat on Wolmi Island is eliminated, the US military will launch a landing operation at 06:30 the next day; the 3rd Battalion of the 5th Marine Corps Regiment, under the cover of intensive bombardment of naval guns and rockets, landed on the north shore of Wolmi Island and was designated as The beachhead of “Green Beach”, the Incheon Landing Battle officially kicked off.
The battle on Wolmi Island went very smoothly. With the support of the M26 Pershing chariot, the US marines planted the Stars and Stripes at the highest point of Wolmi Island in only 47 minutes; around noon, the Marines declared that the whole of Wolmi Island was occupied.
Raid performances, consolidate the beachhead After the U.S. captured Wolmido Island, the main event came into play. At 16:45, the United Nations naval and air firepower carried out a large-scale bombardment on the beachhead of Incheon, which was preparing to land, destroying the defense stronghold of the North Korean army, and breaking down the gray causeway surrounding the harbour. At 17:30, the US Marine Corps battle groups landed on the red and blue beachheads on both sides of Incheon Port. In fact, the beachhead that the U.S. Marines grabbed was an extra-long breakwater. When the LST loaded with the Marines touched the breakwater, the first wave of U.S. Marines who grabbed the beach used ladders with hooks to hang on the top of the embankment. , climb over and over.
Overall, the US landing operation went very smoothly. Obviously, the North Korean army suffered a major surprise attack, and the shore garrison did not offer much resistance. After night, the two landing beachheads were consolidated. While the U.S. landing was in progress, MacArthur and his staff were on the flagship amphibious command ship USS McKinley Hill and inspected the entire process of the troops’ beach grabs. They were very pleased and sent the following message to the troops: “The Navy and Marine Corps have There has never been such an outstanding performance as this morning!” The U.S. Army landed in Inchon, declaring success.
Famous war history The Inchon landing was among the most outstanding military operations in the history of warfare. The primary contributor to the victory of the US military was none other than MacArthur. MacArthur’s unwavering attitude, coupled with his military leadership, finally led to the success of the Inchon landing. Throughout the landing process, the U.S. military did not encounter any effective counterattacks, with dozens of casualties. It can be said that the Port of Incheon was quickly captured without breaking a sweat. After that, not only Seoul but also Pyongyang fell into the hands of the U.S. military. inside.
Throughout the Korean War, the Inchon landing was a battle that people talked about with relish. The U.S. military gained great benefits at a very small price, and the situation on the Korean battlefield was turned 180 degrees in an instant.
In this regard, Lieutenant Admiral Stroup, commander of the U.S. Navy Task Force 7, commented, “Mike Shuai has three things to be commended, his operational concept, and his determination to carry out the operation to the end; An attitude of full personal responsibility.”
Most of the books on dealers on the market are wrong. They simply regard the dealer’s method as raising the price to allow the follower to pick up the book to achieve the purpose of shipping. Such “silly dealers” actually do not exist.
Not many people can explain the process of Soros’s attack on the British pound, the baht, and the baht. Many people simply think that Soros is blindly shorting the market with huge funds, and he just smashes the market, so the short order is profitable-if it is true So simple, anyone can be Soros. Most people still don’t understand the underlying logic of hedge fund hedging. This article starts from the underlying logic and shows you how Soros can hedge himself in any situation. in an undefeated position.
It can be said that all bookmakers make profits by hedging in the spot and forward markets.
However, it is also hedging. The gameplay and logic in the foreign exchange, commodities, and precious metal markets are completely different from the gameplay and logic in the stock market. Because the former is divided into the spot and futures markets for hedging, which are two separate markets with two different disks, and the scale of funds is completely different; while the latter stock market hedging is buying stocks and short selling securities. In the same plate, the same plate is shared, and the specific performance of such differences will be explained in detail later.
Here we first discuss the former foreign exchange, commodities, and precious metals market maker hedging methods, because it is easier to understand. After understanding it, it is much easier to talk about the process of Soros’s attack on the British pound, the Thai baht, and the Hong Kong dollar.
For ease of understanding, let me take Bitcoin as an example. If you want to be a bookmaker, it is very simple for you to control the market. As long as you have enough funds, you can buy 99% of the bitcoins in the spot market. At this time, 99% of the bitcoins are equivalent to “freezing” in your hands. There is only 1% of the circulating order left, so you can raise the price as high as you want, because most of the selling orders in the spot market can only be in your hands, because the total order in the spot market is limited , you hold 99% of the bitcoin, as long as you don’t sell it, basically there will be no selling in the market, and you only need to spend a little money, and you can make the transaction price as high as you want.
Because the formation principle of the time-sharing trend of capital market prices is the line formed by the average transaction price that occurs every minute, and it has nothing to do with the transaction volume. If the original bitcoin price is 1,000 yuan, and all the bitcoins in the spot market are in your hands, you place a sell order at 10,000 yuan, and then take out 10,000 yuan to buy it yourself, then you can see the time-sharing trend of bitcoin. The price rose from 1,000 yuan to 10,000 yuan, an instant 10-fold increase.
If you look at it this way, it seems that you only used 10,000 yuan to increase your total assets by 10 times. However, even if you don’t have eggs, you can push the transaction price even higher in the spot market time-sharing trend, pulling it to 100 million yuan. Either way, it’s just a floating profit on the disk. If you want to achieve real profit, you must sell all the bitcoins you have to cash out, which is considered a real profit.
That’s the problem. When you are trying to clear out all the bitcoins at the price of 10,000 yuan, you find that no one takes the order, and no one wants to buy it. What should you do? If you sell it blindly, you will only smash it like crazy. Didn’t make much money in the end.
So the correct way is this: in the process of pulling up, open a short order at a high price in the futures market to achieve hedging.
First of all, the price rise and fall of the futures market is an independent market and disk, and it is different from the limited disk of the spot market. Its circulating disk can be unlimited. As long as someone is placing a long order or a short order, there are If another fund competes with him, then its circulating market can expand indefinitely. Moreover, the price trend of the futures market can be different from the spot price, or even go in the opposite direction within a certain period of time, but in the end it will return to the spot price.
(For more basic knowledge of futures, I suggest that you go to the textbook and read it. I won’t go into it here, but it is very important. If you rush into the financial market without understanding futures, you will be cannon fodder.)
The futures market is leveraged. If it is 10 times leveraged, then the amount of capital you need to build a short order only needs to be 1/10 of the total capital you bought bitcoin in the spot market. While building a short order, continue to raise the price of Bitcoin in the spot market – why do you want to do this, just to ensure that the cost price of your short order is as high as possible, when you do this, no other retail investors dare Go short, only dare to go long, so that your short order is not afraid of not having an opponent at this price. If someone dares to go short and compete with you, you can continue to increase the spot price and make their short orders explode.
Once the short order in the futures market is completed, the layout is complete. At this time, you can boldly sell bitcoins in the spot market to cash out. At this time, if no one takes the order, the price of Bitcoin will plummet from 10,000 blocks, and at this time, the futures market will generally follow the decline-because the spot price begins to fall, opening the distance from the futures price, and some people must choose to go short. , or the original long-order option to stop loss and close the position (and long-order close-out is to short), even if no one is really short after 10,000 steps, then no one will dare to go long. At this time, you are in the futures market. It is possible to short the price with a small amount of capital to hit the low price.
In this way, as a bookmaker, you can basically make a steady profit, because even if you don’t make any money in the cash market process because the transaction price keeps falling, you are short in the futures market, so you make a lot of money in the futures market. In the process of falling futures market prices, gradually liquidate positions and take profits.
——And closing a short position in the futures market is to go long, and it forms a hedge with short selling in the spot market. We can call it a hedge liquidation.
From 1883 to 1885, a war broke out between the Qing Dynasty and France, known as the “Sino-French War” in history. In the war, France once had the upper hand, destroying the Fujian navy of the Qing Dynasty in the Battle of Mawei, and marched into Taiwan Island and Hangzhou Bay. The Sino-French army also broke out in the Sino-Vietnamese border area.
The French occupied Keelung and were repelled by Taiwanese governor Liu Mingchuan when they attacked Tamsui. The Qing army also held Hangzhou Bay. In the Sino-Vietnamese border battlefield, veteran Feng Zicai defeated the French army, won the victory at Zhennanguan, and occupied Lang Son.
In the end, the result of this war was that the Qing Dynasty recognized France’s suzerainty over Vietnam without ceding territory or paying indemnities. History textbooks call it “France wins without victory, China loses without defeat”.
Although the Qing Dynasty performed very badly in the Sino-French war, France did not completely defeat the Qing Dynasty in the war, and the two sides had a winner and loser. France, which is known as the “world’s second”, is also embarrassing, and the cabinet has fallen.
Nine years later, the Sino-Japanese War broke out between the Qing Dynasty and Japan. The Qing Dynasty suffered a particularly disastrous defeat in the war, first in the naval battle of the Yellow Sea, and then in the land battle on the Korean Peninsula. After that, Japan landed on the Liaodong Peninsula and Shandong Peninsula and occupied the home port of the Beiyang Fleet. All the warships became the spoils of the Japanese.
Finally, the Qing Dynasty also ceded Taiwan Province and the Liaodong Peninsula (later redeemed), and paid 200 million taels of silver.
At that time, the national strength of France was obviously several times stronger than that of Japan. Even France could not defeat the Qing Dynasty. Why could Japan do it?
Some say it’s because of the proximity.
Some say it is because the Japanese are belligerent.
Some say it was because of the Meiji Restoration.
These are all reasons, but by no means the main ones. Why do you say that?
There are many countries close to the Qing Dynasty. Before the Sino-Japanese War, I had never seen any neighboring country that could beat the Qing Dynasty so badly and paid 200 million taels of indemnity.
In the face of modern weapons, bellicose or not has become less important.
Many people think that after the Meiji Restoration, Japan was reborn and soared. In fact, although Japan has become stronger through the Meiji Restoration, it is still far from defeating the Qing Dynasty. At the same time, Japan vigorously established industry, the burden on farmers became very heavy, the bottom people in Japan became poorer, and social riots often occurred.
The Soviet Union and the Chinese have the best understanding of how much burden an agricultural country will bring to its peasants if it wants to vigorously develop its industry. Japan’s arable land is far less than that of Russia and China, but the population pressure is even greater. It is conceivable how much pressure the bottom people in Japan were under at that time.
At that time, Japan was already a very densely populated country, with a population of more than 40 million. The internal contradictions were accumulating more and more. Like a volcano, it could erupt at any time.
Japan urgently needs to use foreign wars to shift the social focus, transfer internal contradictions to the outside, and plunder foreign wealth to reduce the pressure on the domestic people.
But invading neighboring countries also requires capital, and invading a giant country like the Qing Dynasty requires a lot of money. Japan is so poor, where does the money come from?
Many books say that at that time, Japan was single-minded, up to the emperor, ministers, down to the common people, and they all shrunk their food and clothing. More than one million Japanese women even went to Southeast Asia to provide special services, and all the money they got was used to build weapons and warships.
These are all true.
But the question is, how much will this save?
Can savings double a country’s revenue? The Japanese people were already so poor that they could no longer be poor, and even if they were enlightened, they would not save much space.
crucial moment. A “living Lei Feng” has appeared, and this is the United Kingdom.
The United Kingdom was the world’s most powerful and rich country at that time, and it gave Japan a total of 150 million taels of unsecured loans, which was equivalent to several times Japan’s fiscal revenue. Relying on this huge sum of money, Japan built and purchased armaments on a large scale, surpassing the Qing Dynasty in weapons and equipment.
The Beiyang Navy spent a total of tens of millions of taels of silver. Far less than Japan spends on armaments.
Since Britain has lent so much money to Japan, it must support Japan to win. Britain must have also given Japan a lot of covert support in intelligence, political promises and other aspects.
The Sino-Japanese War was actually a war of plundering against the Qing Dynasty that the United Kingdom paid for, and the Japanese contributed people and efforts. Japan is just a proxy for Britain. The defeat of the Qing Dynasty was already doomed.
The United Kingdom has always implemented a “continental balance of power” policy, supporting the second most powerful country in a region and weakening the strongest country. Japan has acted as a tool for the United Kingdom to weaken the Qing Dynasty and Russia in East Asia.
This is why it is very difficult for France to single out the Qing Dynasty, and why Japan, which is weak in national strength, can completely defeat the Qing Dynasty. It is somewhat strange that the United Kingdom was the decisive factor in the Sino-Japanese War, but textbooks did not mention it at all.