How does exercise transform the brain?

The refreshing feeling after exercising is something that many people have never experienced before. The mental state of sweating profusely and full of strength will give people unprecedented motivation. How does exercise transform the brain?

A happy childhood is accompanied by various movements, running ‍♀️, jumping, laughing, dancing, we keep running, from one end of the house to the other, from the park gate to the swing position, etc.

Why is it easier to be happy in childhood? It is exercise, and why does exercise bring happiness? After reading “Exercise Transforms the Brain”, I understand how exercise affects our brain.

The principle of exercise: The more you exercise, the more brain cells, and the more you exercise, the more connections between brain cells can be established. Everyone knows that exercise can make the body stronger, it can make people self-regulate stress, and it can make people feel happy, but they don’t know that the real reason why we feel happy is that exercise puts the brain in the best condition.

  1. Exercise: Blocking the pressure feedback loop

Exercise affects the process of synaptic transmission of signals. While muscles relax, it also breaks the pressure feedback loop transmitted to the brain, thereby adjusting the adverse effects of pressure on the entire human body. Through exercise, the sense of conquest and self-confidence are enhanced, and the ability to “get rid of stress” is enhanced.

  1. Exercise teaches the brain: Anxiety is a cognitive error.

People are born anxious. In order to protect themselves from being eaten by monsters, primitive people must always be alert to danger, but in today’s society, anxiety has become “the culprit of bad performance”, because excessive anxiety can lead to various problems, and even lose the ability to take care of yourself. , Many anxiety patients choose to take medicine for relief, but although medicine can relieve tension, it makes people listless. At this time, regular aerobic exercise will give people a sense of control in their anxiety state.

When we increase our heart rate and breathing in the context of exercise, which we know is a physiological signal that certainly won’t trigger an anxiety attack, we come to like the way our bodies are aroused and don’t automatically see the technique as harmful.

If you only know that exercise has great benefits, but you can’t move your legs, it is because you know too little of its usefulness, so I recommend this book “Exercise to Transform the Brain” for you. Exercise regularly! Enjoy the changes brought about by exercise!

Why does weight loss require strength + aerobic training together?

Sometimes in the gym, I tell others that you can’t just lose weight by running. If you want to do strength training, you will always encounter some people who say, “My friend who runs for 1 hour a day loses 20 pounds in a month.”

Yes, doing aerobic running every day can really help you lose weight, it will definitely help you lose weight, but it doesn’t necessarily make you lose weight beautifully and the healthiest!

  1. Can aerobic exercise reduce fat even more?

Aerobic exercise burns calories, but does not increase metabolic rate for a long time.

Strength training, on the other hand, doesn’t burn calories for long, but it increases muscle mass, which increases your metabolic rate, allowing you to burn more calories even when you’re resting.

Therefore, a combination of aerobic exercise and strength training is the best way to lose weight.

  1. Is the more aerobic exercise the better?

Aerobic exercise is a good way to lose fat and lose weight, but if you do it for too long, you will not only consume fat, but also muscle.

Generally speaking, 40 minutes of aerobic exercise is enough. Excessive exercise will exhaust the leucine in the body that prevents muscle breakdown caused by excessive exercise, resulting in muscle consumption.

  1. Can increase the intensity of aerobic exercise

Reduce time to achieve the purpose of burning fat?

The principle of fat loss is that you burn more calories than you absorb every day. High-intensity workouts are bound to burn more calories than low-intensity workouts, but too much cardio can burn muscle.

When the amount of exercise reaches 60% of the maximum heart rate, the body consumes more energy-supply fat than sugar or muscle, but if the exercise intensity is greater, such as above 75%, the body will directly convert fat, sugar, and protein. All as a source of energy.

  1. You should do aerobic exercise first or should I do strength training first?

Sugar is the primary source of energy consumption in the body. If you put aerobic exercise first, the sugar in your body will be consumed first. When you do strength training, you will feel powerless and affect the efficiency of exercise.

And when you perform aerobic exercise after strength training, you will burn fat directly after the liver sugar is almost burned. The most sensible thing to do would be to do strength exercises after a brief warm-up (5-10 minutes), followed by cardio.

What is bile duct stricture and how should it be treated?

What is bile duct stricture and how should it be treated?

What is a bile duct stricture?

The bile duct is formed from the micro bile ducts formed by the liver cells in the liver, to the intrahepatic bile duct, and then to the relatively thick common bile duct, all the way to the intestinal tract. The distribution of all bile ducts is like a tree. The narrowing or obstruction of the bile duct in any part is called bile duct stenosis, and the common clinical stenosis is mainly the stenosis of the common bile duct and the stenosis of the main branches of the intrahepatic bile duct.

Bile duct strictures can be caused by a variety of etiologies, and are classified into two categories: benign bile duct strictures and malignant bile duct strictures according to their pathological types. At present, the differential diagnosis of bile duct strictures is still difficult, and early diagnosis can help patients with malignant strictures obtain the best prognosis and avoid unnecessary surgery for patients with benign strictures.

Causes of bile duct strictures

· Causes of benign bile duct strictures

Benign Biliary Stricture (BBS) refers to the local formation of scar tissue in the bile duct lumen caused by a series of non-malignant diseases, eventually resulting in complete or incomplete stenosis of the bile duct. Untreated benign bile duct strictures are often secondary to complications that can lead to serious adverse outcomes (irreversible liver cell damage, recurrent sepsis, etc.).

  1. Inflammatory diseases

Inflammatory stricture caused by bile duct stones complicated by infection, chronic pancreatitis, cholangitis (primary sclerosing cholangitis, IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis).

  1. History of biliary surgery

Cholecystectomy, pancreaticoduodenectomy, biliary-enteric (liver-enteric) anastomosis, after liver transplantation.

3, iatrogenic injury

Improper operation of biliary tract, inflammatory contraction and stenosis after damage to the bile duct.

  1. Other situations

Blood vessels compress the bile duct and bile duct stones cause bile duct obstruction and relative stenosis.

· Causes of malignant bile duct strictures

Malignant Biliary Stricture (MBS) refers to tumor stenosis caused by primary or exogenous compression of bile ducts such as bile duct cancer, pancreatic cancer, ampullary cancer, and metastatic cancer.

Treatment of bile duct strictures

· An examination

The most routine examination for bile duct stenosis is abdominal ultrasound, which can only be used as a primary screening tool for benign bile duct stenosis. When malignant bile duct stenosis is highly suspected, contrast-enhanced CT and MRCP should be performed. The combination of the two methods can improve the accuracy of diagnosis.

· Treat

There are different treatment methods for benign and malignant bile duct stenosis, mainly surgical treatment, the principle is “relieve the stenosis, unobstructed drainage”. In clinical practice, only about 15% to 24% of bile duct strictures are benign, and most of them are caused by malignant lesions. Many malignant patients have no obvious symptoms in the early stage, so the diagnosis is difficult, and the best treatment opportunity is lost. Therefore, all patients with bile duct stenosis should be paid high attention, and timely medical treatment and detailed evaluation should be carried out.

Do you know these wonderful benefits of Astragalus

Astragalus is a leguminous plant with a yellow to light tan outer epidermis, with longitudinal wrinkles or longitudinal grooves. The outer edge of the cut surface is yellowish-white, the interior is pale yellow, with radial texture and cracks, and some centers are rotten, dark brown or hollow. Astragalus decoction pieces have a small smell, a slightly sweet taste, and a beany smell when chewed. Sweet, medicinal properties lukewarm. Return to the lung and spleen meridians.

Astragalus has the functions of invigorating qi and raising yang, consolidating the surface and stopping sweating, diluting water and reducing swelling, promoting body fluid and nourishing blood, promoting stagnation and dredging arthralgia, supporting toxins and expelling pus, astringing sores and generating muscles.

Astragalus can be used to treat qi deficiency and fatigue, lack of appetite and loose stools, depression of middle qi, prolapse of the rectum for a long time, metrorrhagia and metrorrhagia, spontaneous perspiration, internal heat and thirst, edema due to qi deficiency, chlorosis due to blood deficiency, arthralgia and numbness, hemiplegia, and hard-to-collapse carbuncle. , long collapsed.

How to use Astragalus?

Astragalus can be taken in decoction, or made into pills, powders or ointments. Be sure to follow the doctor’s advice when taking it, and do not increase or decrease the dose yourself.

Astragalus soaked in water instead of tea can relieve spleen deficiency and lung qi deficiency. The surface is full of evil, and there is stagnation inside, yin deficiency and yang hyperactivity, sores and sores are not suitable for consumption.

Astragalus can be drunk with multi-flavored traditional Chinese medicine wine:

Astragalus and Chinese herbs such as Angelica and Rehmannia glutinosa are combined with wine, which can activate blood and nourish yin, strengthen Qi and solidify the appearance, and relieve night sweats.

Astragalus and Codonopsis pilosula are mixed with wine, which can invigorate Qi and spleen, invigorate the lungs and strengthen the surface, relieve shortness of breath and fatigue, spontaneous sweating and fear of wind, etc.

Astragalus, red ginseng, angelica and other traditional Chinese medicines soaked in wine can invigorate Qi, activate blood, clear collaterals and relieve sciatica.

Chinese medicines containing astragalus:

Eleven-flavored Shenqi Tablets: It has the effect of tonifying the spleen and nourishing qi, and can be used to treat weakness and limb weakness caused by spleen deficiency.

Niuhuang Jiangya Tablets: It has the effects of clearing the heart and resolving phlegm, calming the liver and soothing the nerves. It can be used to treat dizziness, headache, insomnia, and restlessness caused by hyperactivity of the heart and liver, and phlegm heat; it can also be used for the treatment of hypertension.

Liver B Yangyin Huoxue Granules: It has the functions of nourishing liver and kidney, promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis. It is mainly used to treat chronic hepatitis of liver and kidney yin deficiency type, and relieve dull complexion, dizziness, tinnitus, five upset heat, soreness of waist and legs, etc.

Qili Qiangxin Capsules: It can benefit temperature and yang, activate blood and dredge collaterals, diuresis and reduce swelling. It is used for the treatment of coronary heart disease and moderate congestive heart failure caused by hypertension, relieve palpitation, shortness of breath, edema of lower extremities, fatigue, lack of urination, and blue lips. , chills, etc.

It should be noted that both astragalus and ginseng are good medicines for deficiency, but they are not suitable for taking them together, otherwise it will easily lead to anger and even endocrine disorders.

Can blood type predict cancer? A type, B type, O type, AB type, which blood type is less prone to cancer

We have already decided what blood type we are from the moment we are born. Blood type actually refers to the different antigens and antibodies in the blood, which help the blood resist foreign invading harmful substances.

The most common and most commonly mentioned blood types are the abo types, which are divided into 4 major types: A blood, B blood, AB blood and O blood.

Scientists have been studying our blood types for a long time. Different blood types do have different personalities, and different blood types will also affect our health to a certain extent. Now there are people on the Internet who associate blood types with cancer. Different blood types The odds of getting cancer are different, so which blood type has a lower chance of getting cancer?

Can blood type predict cancer? A type, B type, O type, AB type, which blood type is less prone to cancer?

Blood type A

Type A blood is the first blood type to appear. Type A blood has strong endurance and adaptability, but people with type A blood have relatively poor resistance. They may catch a cold if they are not careful at ordinary times, and people with type A blood The blood concentration is relatively high, and it is prone to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases.

People with type A blood are also prone to stomach problems, especially gastritis and gastric ulcers. Among the people suffering from cancer, the proportion of people with type A blood is still relatively high, as high as 1/3. The most common types of cancer are gastric cancer, esophageal cancer, and sarcoma.

Gastric cancer is particularly closely related to blood type A, and it may be that the tumor glycolipids in the tumor tissue have blood type A activity.

Blood type B

Type B blood appears later than type A blood, but it also accounts for a large proportion of the population. This type of people is active and active, so their resistance is relatively better, but they are prone to lung diseases , the probability of suffering from tuberculosis is higher, but people with blood type B are not prone to liver disease.

Studies have shown that people with type B blood are more likely to develop diabetes, and people with type B blood have a 21% higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes than people with type O blood.

Because people with blood type B have unstable temper and are not easy to control, they are prone to breast cancer and oral cancer. They must learn to control their temper in peacetime.

Type AB blood

People with type AB blood are relatively calm, so the probability of developing cancer is relatively small, but people with type AB blood are prone to coronary heart disease and cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, and their blood flow is relatively slow and blood concentration is relatively high. , especially for female friends, the probability of developing cervical cancer will increase relatively.

People with type Ab blood have both a antigen and B antigen, so they are prone to schizophrenia, and they must be careful of depression.

Blood type O

People with type O blood have an advantage over other blood types. Type O blood is the universal blood in everyone’s heart, but not all blood types can be lost, so you still need to pay attention to matching, because people with type O blood are more active , so the metabolism of the body is relatively good, and you can adjust your body in time.

Compared with other blood types, people with type O blood have a lower risk of cancer, and people with type O blood are generally positive and optimistic, and they can regulate their emotions in time.

However, people with type O blood have a higher risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease and cerebral thrombosis, and people with type O blood are prone to pulmonary infections, so they must take personal protection in peacetime.


Although studies have found that there is a certain correlation between different blood types and the incidence of different diseases, blood type is not the only factor that causes diseases. You don’t have to worry too much. As long as you adjust your life in peacetime, you can also keep many diseases out of the door. .

These 5 “alkaline foods” are recommended to be eaten regularly to help prevent cancer and fight cancer, or be beneficial to health

Cancer has always been a topic that people talk about. With the improvement of medical level and the improvement of detection, more and more people have been diagnosed with cancer in their bodies, and their lives have been seriously troubled.

In medicine, cancer refers to malignant tumors originating from epithelial tissue, which is the most common type of malignant tumors. Correspondingly, malignant tumors originating from mesenchymal tissue are collectively referred to as sarcomas.

There are a few malignant tumors that are not named according to the above principles, such as Wilms tumor, malignant teratoma, etc. The “cancer” commonly referred to by people is used to refer to all malignant tumors.

Cancer has biological characteristics such as abnormal cell differentiation and proliferation, uncontrolled growth, invasiveness and metastasis. Its occurrence is a complex multi-factor and multi-step process, which is divided into three processes: carcinogenesis, cancer promotion, and evolution. Infection, occupational exposure, environmental pollution, unreasonable diet, and genetic factors are closely related.

Of course, I still hope that everyone can develop good eating habits and living habits in daily life. You might as well learn about the following five alkaline foods, which may have a certain immunity to your body! Prevention is better than cure!

These 5 “alkaline foods” are recommended to be eaten regularly to help prevent cancer and fight cancer, or be beneficial to health


The reason why sesame paste can be called “brain gold” is because of its unique nutritional value, which is mainly reflected in the “four highs” among the many nutrients it contains: high calcium, high iron, high protein and high linoleic acid .

Moreover, it also has the effect of protecting liver and anti-cancer. Sesamin has a strong antioxidant effect in the body, and has the effects of lowering blood pressure, anti-oxidation, lowering cholesterol and anti-cancer.

Solanum nigrum

Nightshade, also known as nightshade, also known as black seed vegetable, eggplant, physalis, black beet, is a nightshade plant of the nightshade family, with upright stems and many branches. Its leaves are oval or heart-shaped, similar to pepper leaves. , the tip is sharp.

In summer, it will open small white flowers, 4-10 into cymes, spherical berries, dark purple when mature.

Nightshade has anti-cancer effects. Nightshade contains a lot of alkaloids, and is rich in vitamins and minerals, which can supplement the nutrition in the body. Nightshade has certain anti-cancer and anti-cancer effects.

Solanum nigrum has a certain improvement effect on chronic cancer diseases. When suffering from chronic bronchitis or urinary system diseases, solanum nigrum can be used to improve.

In addition, nightshade can also be used for treatment when there is a bruise or high blood pressure.

Pumpkin seeds

Pumpkin seeds are essential nutrients for the normal functioning of the nervous system and help produce GABA. When the brain is tense or in other unfavorable states, it can improve the emergency ability of the brain.

Pumpkin seeds are also a very good natural food for men. The high content of zinc and the formation of dehydroepiandrosterone help prevent prostate cancer.

Pumpkin seed extract and pumpkin seeds, in turn, can treat benign prostatic hyperplasia and enlarged prostate. In addition, the seeds of pumpkin can improve the regulation ability of insulin and effectively prevent the occurrence of diabetes.

In addition, pumpkin seeds are also rich in a large amount of easily digestible protein, which is conducive to the stability of blood sugar. Pumpkin seed oil also contains phytonutrients that help prevent kidney disease and diabetes.

Eggplant skin

Eggplant has anti-cancer effects. More and more evidences show that eggplant has anti-cancer function. A non-toxic substance extracted from eggplant has been tested for the treatment of gastric cancer and cervical cancer.


Eating mulberries can play a certain role in preventing cancer and anti-cancer, because mulberries contain the effect of preventing the spread of tumor cells, which is a very good auxiliary food for preventing cancer cell lesions. In general, mulberries have high nutritional value. The post is very helpful.

In addition, dried mulberries are also very good. Anti-cancer and anti-cancer is one of the important functions of dried mulberries. It contains resveratrol, which can reduce the formation of cancer cells in the human body and also have a positive effect on the formation of blood clots. Strong blocking effect, so dried mulberry is a natural health care product.

Why do people sleep, the ultimate secret of why people sleep!

Why do people sleep, the ultimate secret of why people sleep, why does all life sleep?

Scientists have come up with many ideas over the years about why people sleep. Some people think that the answer to why people sleep is a way to save energy; some people think that the reason why people sleep is to provide the brain with an opportunity to remove cellular waste; still others think that the answer to why people sleep is Sleep simply forces animals to lie down quietly so they can hide from predators.

Why do people sleep? This question may seem very boring, but after thinking about it, you will find that the reason why people sleep is actually a very magical thing. From waking up to falling asleep, it is like stepping into another world, whether you are dreaming or not, This kind of sudden loss of consciousness, but suddenly regained consciousness is full of mystery. When a person realizes this, then he will start to think about this question, why do people sleep? Why do people sleep? In fact, this is also a topic that countless scientists have been studying for many years. Now Ouyang Miguo, who learned from Heaven and Man, finally gave all mankind a clear answer.

But don’t rush to look at the answer directly, we can discuss the topic of why people sleep step by step. Why do people sleep? Before science gives a clear answer, many philosophers have expressed meaningful views on this question. Philosophers believe that human life can be divided into two parts, one part is reality, the other part is dream. Why do people sleep? Some people may think this question is silly. Sleeping is because the brain needs rest. Yes, the brain needs rest, but the question is why it must be rested by sleeping? What is the significance of sleep to living things?

Japanese scientists have tried to unravel this mystery, trying to completely solve the secret of why people sleep. The research on why people sleep was led by Professor Yuji Iketani of the University of Tokyo in Japan. To explain why people sleep, or why all biological people sleep, we must first introduce our brains. As we all know, the hippocampus is involved in learning and memory, and we also know that the number of nerve cells in the human brain is limited.

This creates a paradox. When we learn and remember, the memory information in the brain quickly becomes saturated. Then we need a restart mechanism. Fortunately, our brain itself has such a mechanism. The hippocampus can send out a brain wave called SWR for short. This brain wave can weaken the synaptic connections during sleep, and to put it bluntly is to ensure the necessary. Closing unnecessary synapses while exchanging information in the brain frees up memory space in the brain, which is similar to what we usually know about computer restarts to free up memory. And this kind of brainwaves that can play a restart function can only be released during sleep, so it can be considered that the purpose of people sleeping is to ensure the release of SWR brainwaves.

The above statement is just one of the possibilities. Let’s discuss why people sleep and what will happen if people don’t sleep? Studies have shown that animals that don’t get enough sleep can suffer and eventually die. Animals that can’t sleep get sick and even die: Wounds don’t heal without sleep, they lose weight, their skin deteriorates, and their immune systems collapse. So, one of the reasons why we need sleep may be that the body can repair itself during sleep, but not when awake.

Why do people need sleep, or what is the function of sleep?

There are so many theories about the function of why people sleep, which also reflects our rather limited understanding of the function of sleep. Most existing theories suggest that sleep functions include repair, metabolism and synthesis, development, and memory consolidation. These functions may not be different in humans and other animals.

The best way to understand the function of sleep for why people sleep is to see what happens if sleep is not. Here is an example of a cruel experiment to tell you why the biggest purpose of people sleeping is to survive.

This is a total sleep deprivation experiment. We can judge whether a person or animal is sleeping by monitoring the EEG state. In this experiment, two mice were kept in a wheel device and their EEG was detected at the same time. When the wheel began to turn, the experimental mice were forced to wake up and walk with the wheel. During this period, the experimental mice were completely deprived of sleep, while the control mice could sleep intermittently, but only walked the same distance.

And then came the results: the experimental animals ate more and more, but weighed less and less.

The poor mouse later began to have a body temperature disorder, showed strong heat-seeking behavior, and finally, it died (the control mice were still alive).

This experiment explains why people sleep or why all living things sleep. The functions include: energy metabolism balance, body temperature maintenance and immunity.

Of course, there are many more effects of sleep deprivation, which means that sleep does more than that.

The most easily discovered function of people and why all life sleep: maintaining mental state, including attention, emotional control, judgment, etc.

Sleep deprivation can lead to drowsiness, and depending on the nature of sleep deprivation, in subsequent sleep, sleep deprivation can increase the amplitude of the characteristic EEG in NREM or the speed of eye movement in REM sleep. Sleep deprivation can predispose individuals to lethargy, change behavior, and affect value judgments. Insufficient sleep can accumulate, which shows that sleep plays an important role, and some functional deficiencies caused by sleep loss must be supplemented by subsequent sleep. While humans can overcome short periods of sleep deprivation, they still cannot withstand prolonged periods of sleep deprivation.

Signs of prolonged sleep deprivation include: damaged skin, hyperthermia, increased food intake and sudden death. These manifestations may be related to hypothalamic dysfunction and endocrine and immune system dysfunction, but it is not found that sleep deprivation can cause organic damage to the brain.

During sleep, the body’s metabolism is reduced and energy can be conserved.

The reason why people, and all life, sleep may also be an adaptive behavior, the purpose of which is to limit the activity of the body during certain periods of the 24-hour period, thereby saving energy, like hibernation during certain seasons. Larger herbivores sleep less per day than smaller ones, probably because they are more vulnerable to predators. Another explanation is that herbivores need more time to eat to get enough energy from low-energy foods. Another explanation for the relationship between animal size and sleep time is that smaller animals need more sleep because they have a larger surface area to volume ratio, so maintaining body temperature while awake is more energy-intensive, while hiding in warm and safe Nest sleep minimizes such losses. Another unexpected finding was that animals with shorter sleep durations had shallower sleep depths by analyzing sleep depth through EEG. That said, animals that sleep less do not need deeper sleep to make up for their needs.

Conserving energy may be most important for newborns. Because neonatal animals have the largest surface area/volume ratio, heat loss is more severe. In addition, sleep can reduce the possibility of immature animals being detected by predators by reducing activity. As body size and sensorimotor abilities mature, animals gain more benefit from waking activities, so sleep time gradually decreases.

Another possible function of all life sleep is to fight oxidation and provide repair of oxidative damage to the body. In small animals, the metabolic rate is higher than in large animals, which may be the reason why small animals need more sleep time. Experiments have shown that sleep-deprived animals show more pronounced oxidative damage. During sleep, many proteins are synthesized, including some needed for antioxidants. At the same time, a certain amount of sleep is also necessary for neuron regeneration.

Now the ultimate answer to why people sleep has arrived. This is a brand new answer given by Ouyang Miguo, the founder of the study of celestial beings.

There have been various explanations on why people sleep above, some say why people sleep for maintenance and recovery, some say why people sleep to consolidate memory, and so on. With the popularity of smart appliances, people have thought of a new term: “charging”. This statement is more popular because it vividly explains the feeling of refreshment and energy after waking up, just like a full battery, and this statement also covers maintenance and recovery, and consolidation of memory. and so on the original statement.

However, there is still a puzzling question: where does “electricity” come from? The human brain is a big energy consumer. If the “electricity” required by the brain is nutrients and oxygen in food, why can’t people charge their brains when they are awake? Do you have to go into unconscious sleep and let your brain “shut down” first and then recharge?

Research has found that sleep is a common phenomenon in all life, and it is necessary to enter the “shutdown” state to enter sleep. Even animals whose left and right brains can work alternately have to take turns “shutdown and charge”. Why? Perhaps the “electricity” required for life is not only the nutrients on the surface, but also an unknown “current” charging life! And this mysterious “current” can only be charged when life is “shut down”!

The 100 richest people in Ukraine have fled to the remaining 4, and the reason for not being able to escape is exposed.

The situation in Russia and Ukraine is tense. Russian President Vladimir Putin ordered the army to enter two pro-Russian regions in eastern Ukraine and recognized it as an independent country. The United States and the European Union successively imposed the first round of sanctions. According to local media reports, affected by the situation in Russia and Ukraine, Ukraine The top 100 richest people fled the country, and only 4 people remain in Ukraine because of suspected corruption and their passports were detained by the court and could not leave the country.

The Ukrainian media “Pravda” reported that as of the 13th, there were more than 20 charter flights out of the country, the largest number in a single day in the past six years. Most of them took off from the capital, Kiev, carrying rich people and parliamentarians, and many of them were to Switzerland. ,Austria.

According to the report, among these charter planes, Rinat Akhmetov, the founder of SCM Holdings, the richest man in Ukraine, ranked 111th on the Forbes rich list, Victor Pinchuk, the second-ranked steel giant, agricultural The richest man Vadim Nesterenko.

In addition to the rich, some Ukrainian lawmakers have also fled the country. The report quoted sources as saying that some opposition lawmakers and businessmen ordered a private jet with a capacity of 50 people and planned to fly to Vienna.

The report pointed out that almost all of Ukraine’s top 100 richest people have fled abroad, and only 4 people remain in Ukraine. Among them, the richest man with 3 passports, Igor Kolomoysky, remains in Ukraine because of corruption. In criminal cases, passports were detained by the court; in addition, the passports of former Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko were detained by the court, but it was rumored that he had transferred his family and property abroad.

According to the report, Ukrainian President Zelensky was very angry about this when he made a speech, restricting these people to return to China within 24 hours, otherwise they will suffer serious consequences; many fleeing rich and parliamentarians heard the news and flew back to Ukraine, but some People insisted not to return home.

Putin went to war to kill himself, and the Russian stock horrified 50%, an epic destruction.

Russian President Vladimir Putin ordered war against Ukraine, and the Moscow Stock Exchange suspended all trading, but then the stock exchange issued a statement and resumed trading at 10 am local time on Thursday (24th), unexpectedly, the Russian stock market opened. The massacre started. As of 11:35 a.m. local time , the U.S. dollar-denominated Russian RTS index smashed by 49.09% (or 591.07 points), temporarily reported 613.04 points, and there is no sign of stopping the decline in the short term. , the worst decline in history. In response, netizens called it “epic destruction”.

In addition, the ruble-denominated Moex index of the Russian stock market also plunged 45.22% (or 1689.84 points), temporarily reporting 1690.15 points.

The Moscow Stock Exchange stock index opened lower in early trading on the 24th, falling nearly 10% at one point. About 2 hours after the market opened, the exchange announced a trading halt, before resuming it.

Earlier in the day, according to data from the Moscow Stock Exchange, the dollar-ruble exchange rate rose to 1 to 84.08, the first time since January 2016 to exceed 1 to 84; the euro-ruble exchange rate rose to 1 to 95.24, the first time since January 2016 For the first time since this month, it broke through 1 to 95.

Russia’s central bank, the Bank of Russia, said today that it will take measures to stabilize the ruble and financial markets.

Because they want to join the American camp? Why is Russia attacking Ukraine, which has been independent for many years?

War between Russia and Ukraine is about to break out! U.S. intelligence shows that Russia may choose to launch an invasion of Ukraine as soon as this Wednesday (16th). The “Wartime Emergency Response Guide” issued by the authorities last year (2021) was compiled for the public’s reference.

It announced the escape routes and methods to the five neighboring countries in the West, and called on the public to confirm the location of the nearby air raid shelters in advance and prepare civilian materials. If you need government assistance when escaping, you can hang white clothes on doorknobs and windows as signs, and remind people to avoid talking with strangers, avoid false information, information warfare, and only follow official instructions…etc.

The 14-page detailed contingency guide shows that the tension between Russia and Ukraine has further escalated, and the possibility of war seems to be increasing.

In fact, after the disintegration of the Soviet Union in 1991, Ukraine became an independent state, but there are still pro-Russian and anti-Russian forces in the country. At the same time, Vladimir Putin also insisted on restoring the former glory of the Soviet Union. Ukraine and Ukraine are described as “one people, a single whole”. Against this historical background, Ukraine and the West are getting closer and closer, which has become the biggest fuse in this conflict between Russia and Ukraine. No hesitation.

Crimea, Donbas conflict unresolved, unexploded bombs buried in war

Ukraine’s increasingly close ties with NATO have angered Russia, and the Donbas region, where pro-Russian and anti-Russian conflicts have not stopped, is also one of the reasons for the conflict.

NATO’s full name is the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). It is a military alliance led by the United States and jointly established with many European countries. Russia has been dissatisfied with the continuous expansion of NATO for many years, including the participation of many former Soviet Union members. Putin accused the United States In violation of a 1990 promise to the Soviet Union that NATO “doesn’t expand an inch to the east”, Ukraine’s current president, Volodymyr Zelenskyi, is pro-Western and actively wants to join NATO.

As for the Donbas region, it is located in the eastern part of Ukraine, and the people mostly speak Russian and have a strong pro-Russian attitude. In 2014, Ukraine ousted pro-Russian President Viktor Yanukovych, and in response Russia annexed the Crimean peninsula in southern Ukraine and backed pro-Russian separatist insurgents in Donbass. In the same year, European leaders held a series of talks with Putin in order to quell the conflict in Ukraine, calling it the “Normandy Model”.

However, the agreement was weak, and the conflict between rebels and Ukrainian government forces continues to this day, killing more than 13,000 soldiers and civilians. In 2021, the deterioration of Russia-Ukraine relations will accelerate, because Russia is dissatisfied with the West’s request to approve Ukraine’s request to join NATO, and Ukraine will conduct joint military exercises with NATO member states. Putin also accused Ukraine of sending mercenaries to the Donbas region and launching armed forces for the first time. Drone strikes … etc., accusing it of violating the Minsk Agreement, breaking the ceasefire treaty, and trying to change the status quo.

The West and Russia can’t reach a consensus. Putin seizes the great opportunity to attack?

At the end of 2021, in order to force the West to take seriously Russia’s request that NATO not expand eastward, the Russian army will expand its military deployment on the Russian-Ukrainian border, with 100,000 troops. More military assistance to Ukraine has led to a sharp rise in the Russian-Ukrainian conflict.

In addition, the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs proposed an unreasonable draft of a “security guarantee” treaty to NATO in December, seeking to limit NATO’s expansion of influence, including prohibiting Ukraine and other former Soviet Union member states from joining NATO, and prohibiting the United States from engaging in military activities and stationing troops in disputed areas. , and demanded that the United States not deploy nuclear weapons outside its own territory… etc. These demands were immediately dismissed by NATO officials, and the West and Russia were further away from reaching a mutual consensus.

The New York Times pointed out that Putin is basically seeking to redefine the borders of Europe after the Cold War, establish a safe zone dominated by Russia, and if necessary, will use force to retake Ukraine. Is this the “necessary moment”? ?

According to a poll by Ukrainian media last year, up to 81% of Ukrainians were disgusted with Putin. “BBC” speculates that even though Russia has taken frequent actions over the years and actively extended its power to Ukraine secretly, it has pushed it further and further. Realizing the need for a different strategy, and the current divisions in the Western world, he decided that now was a great opportunity to escalate the conflict between Russia and Ukraine.

Bruno Maçães, a senior researcher at the Hudson Institute, an American think tank, pointed out two main reasons: the collapse of the situation in Afghanistan and the chaotic withdrawal of troops, showing the lack of unity between Europe and the United States; and the good relationship with Putin. With the departure of Angela Merkel, the former German chancellor of ties, Europe has lost a precious bridge for peaceful dialogue with Russia. Therefore, Putin believes that the Western world, led by the United States, is fragile, organized and disorganized, and now is the “era of Russia”.

The grievances and grievances between Russia and Ukraine have remained unresolved for 30 years. The complex historical background of the past is intertwined with the ever-changing international situation today, which has pushed the tension between Russia and Ukraine to the highest point so far.