Why did the Inchon landing commanded by MacArthur go down in history?

On September 15, 1950, the United Nations Commander-in-Chief MacArthur, with the U.S. 10th Army under the cover of the Navy’s 7th Task Force, carried out an amphibious assault landing on the coast of Inchon, South Korea. The North Korean army suffered a major strategic surprise attack. Slight resistance; on September 16, the 1st Marine Division had connected the beachheads into a front, and the city of Incheon was captured by the South Korean Marines. On September 17, the 7th U.S. Infantry Division came ashore from the beachhead, followed by a steady stream of weapons, equipment and supplies, and the Inchon landing was declared a success.

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The strategic effect of the Inchon landing was huge. Seoul (now Seoul) was captured by the United Nations forces led by the United States on the 25th, and the main rear line of communication of the North Korean army besieged in Busan was immediately cut off. Not only was the siege of Busan resolved, but also caused The main force of the North Korean army collapsed. The U.S. military chased north, crossed the 38th parallel, entered North Korea, and captured the North Korean capital, Pyongyang, on October 19. Before the Chinese Volunteer Army intervened, victory was already in sight for the U.S. military. However, when the proposal to land in Incheon was first proposed, it was met with great opposition and resistance.

On June 25, 1950, the Korean War broke out in Yan. At that time, the South Korean troops were weak and weak, and according to the assessment, their strength was only able to carry out “police tasks”, so they were immediately defeated by the North Korean army. The news of North Korea’s invasion of South Korea shocked the world. The then U.S. President Truman authorized the dispatch of the U.S. Navy and Air Force on the Korean Peninsula, and ordered the Eighth Army Corps, commanded by Lieutenant General Walker, to implement combat readiness. Its advance force, Task Force Smith, was immediately dispatched to South Korea. The 7th Fleet cruised the Taiwan Strait. On July 7, the United Nations passed Resolution 84, whereby member states send troops to participate in the war under the “joint command” chaired by the United States, with U.S. Marshal MacArthur serving as the commander-in-chief of the United Nations.

The proposal to land in Incheon was opposed by the command system
The combat troops of the U.S. 8th Corps arrived one after another, but they were unable to stop the overwhelming North Korean army, and the U.S. troops were driven back to Pusan ​​Port, the southernmost tip of the Korean Peninsula. The “United Nations Army” was determined to maintain this last ring of defense with Busan as the center and the main force of the U.S. 8th Army. In order to save the crisis and reverse the overall strategic situation, MacArthur conceived of landing at the central location of the south bank of the Korean Peninsula and the Incheon Port in the southwest of Seoul, cutting off the North Korean strategic communication line in one fell swoop.

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However, the proposal to land in Inchon was almost completely opposed by the US military command system. Washington believed that the location was too far away from Busan, and I was afraid that the role of the landing counter-offensive would not have an impact on the 8th Army, which was struggling far away at the southern end. In terms of technology, the planning staff of the US Marine Corps also held a negative attitude, because the geographical conditions of the Incheon Port area were totally unsuitable for the implementation of amphibious assault landings. At this time, the U.S. Navy has experienced the baptism of the Pacific War, and has been extremely familiar with the relevant technical and tactical principles of amphibious landing. According to their knowledge and experience of amphibious landing, it is a taboo to implement amphibious landing in the Inchon area.

The sea near Incheon has one of the highest tides in the world. The water flows eastward, and after thousands of years of scouring, a vast mudflat is formed; when the tide is low, the mudflat extends about 6,000 yards from the coast. In addition, the waterway entering and leaving the port of Incheon is curved and narrow. If there is no navigational aid for the registration of the waterway, and sailing under enemy fire, it will be extremely dangerous to enter and leave the port. Furthermore, there is Wolmi Island 800 yards outside the west side of Incheon Port, which is connected to the port area by a causeway, which covers the entire port area, so Wolmi Island has become a good fire spot for restraining activities inside and outside Incheon Port. Although the US Marine Corps has accumulated a lot of experience in amphibious assault landing operations in World War II, it is a new challenge for them to implement amphibious assault landing in the middle of a large city. As one U.S. Marine Corps officer put it: “If you list all the taboos in amphibious warfare, it is exactly the description of the Incheon landing. Most of those involved in the plan believed that if the Incheon landing was successful, all the teachings would need to be reworked. Write.”

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MacArthur was unmoved and put it into practice
However, coach MacArthur was not moved by these objections. He insisted on breaking the established preconceptions, pushing the entire plan to be completed, and with the unremitting efforts of a few Marine Corps staff, the entire combat plan was formulated and finally put into practice. The program, known as “Operation Chrome,” was carried out in coordination with the U.S. Army’s 10th Corps and Lieutenant Admiral Strubo’s 7th Fleet. The 10th Army has jurisdiction over the 1st Marine Division and the 7th Infantry Division. The 1st Marine Division will perform amphibious assault landings. After the beachhead is consolidated, the 7th Infantry Division will then go ashore and expand inland. However, before the main landing, the Marines must first capture Wolmido Island outside Incheon Port to create favorable conditions for the subsequent landing at Incheon Port.

Capturing Moon Island and kicking off the landing
In order to make the firepower of the North Korean army on Wolmi Island lose the role of threatening the landing force, the U.S. Navy Higgins Task Force, with 6 destroyers and 2 cruisers, carried out shelling on Wolmi Island for two consecutive days two days before the main operation. . The North Korean artillery on the island also returned fire on the US warship, but after all, it was unable to resist the concentrated fire of the US warship. By the end of the 14th, the firepower of the North Korean army on the island had disappeared. After the threat on Wolmi Island is eliminated, the US military will launch a landing operation at 06:30 the next day; the 3rd Battalion of the 5th Marine Corps Regiment, under the cover of intensive bombardment of naval guns and rockets, landed on the north shore of Wolmi Island and was designated as The beachhead of “Green Beach”, the Incheon Landing Battle officially kicked off.

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The battle on Wolmi Island went very smoothly. With the support of the M26 Pershing chariot, the US marines planted the Stars and Stripes at the highest point of Wolmi Island in only 47 minutes; around noon, the Marines declared that the whole of Wolmi Island was occupied.

Raid performances, consolidate the beachhead
After the U.S. captured Wolmido Island, the main event came into play. At 16:45, the United Nations naval and air firepower carried out a large-scale bombardment on the beachhead of Incheon, which was preparing to land, destroying the defense stronghold of the North Korean army, and breaking down the gray causeway surrounding the harbour. At 17:30, the US Marine Corps battle groups landed on the red and blue beachheads on both sides of Incheon Port. In fact, the beachhead that the U.S. Marines grabbed was an extra-long breakwater. When the LST loaded with the Marines touched the breakwater, the first wave of U.S. Marines who grabbed the beach used ladders with hooks to hang on the top of the embankment. , climb over and over.

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Overall, the US landing operation went very smoothly. Obviously, the North Korean army suffered a major surprise attack, and the shore garrison did not offer much resistance. After night, the two landing beachheads were consolidated. While the U.S. landing was in progress, MacArthur and his staff were on the flagship amphibious command ship USS McKinley Hill and inspected the entire process of the troops’ beach grabs. They were very pleased and sent the following message to the troops: “The Navy and Marine Corps have There has never been such an outstanding performance as this morning!” The U.S. Army landed in Inchon, declaring success.

Famous war history
The Inchon landing was among the most outstanding military operations in the history of warfare. The primary contributor to the victory of the US military was none other than MacArthur. MacArthur’s unwavering attitude, coupled with his military leadership, finally led to the success of the Inchon landing. Throughout the landing process, the U.S. military did not encounter any effective counterattacks, with dozens of casualties. It can be said that the Port of Incheon was quickly captured without breaking a sweat. After that, not only Seoul but also Pyongyang fell into the hands of the U.S. military. inside.

Throughout the Korean War, the Inchon landing was a battle that people talked about with relish. The U.S. military gained great benefits at a very small price, and the situation on the Korean battlefield was turned 180 degrees in an instant.

In this regard, Lieutenant Admiral Stroup, commander of the U.S. Navy Task Force 7, commented, “Mike Shuai has three things to be commended, his operational concept, and his determination to carry out the operation to the end; An attitude of full personal responsibility.”